Vector-borne Exposure

Vector-borne exposure occurs when an insect acquires a pathogen from one animal and transmits it to another. Diseases can be transmitted by vectors either mechanically or biologically. Mechanical transmission means that the disease agent does not replicate or develop in/on the vector; it is simply transported by the vector from one animal to another (flies). Biological transmission occurs when the vector uptakes the agent, usually through a blood meal from an infected animal, replicates and/or develops it, and then regurgitates the pathogen onto or injects it into a susceptible animal. Fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes are common biological vectors of disease.

Resources and Information

Practical Applications: Vector
These PowerPoint presentations outline specific practical measures to minimize the risk of vector transmitted diseases.
Beef:
[English PPT] [English Speaker Notes PDF]
[Spanish PPT] [Spanish Speaker Notes PDF]
Dairy:
[English PPT] [English Speaker Notes PDF]
[Spanish PPT] [Spanish Speaker Notes PDF]
General Bird and Rodent Control Measures
This document provides practical management recommendations for managing birds and rodents to decrease the risk of orally transmitted diseases on farm.
[English PDF] [Spanish PDF]
Biting Midge Control Measures
This document discusses the life cycle of the biting midge vector and discusses various practical control measures that can be implemented on farm.
[English PDF] [Spanish PDF]
Fly Control Measures
This document discusses the life cycle of flies and various practical control measures that can be implemented on farm.
[English PDF] [Spanish PDF]
Common Flies in the U.S.
This chart depicts the most common flies in the U.S., describes their breeding habits, life cycle, and how they feed on animals for a better understanding of how to control them on farm. This supplements the Fly Control Measures handout.
[English PDF] [Spanish PDF]
General Mosquito Control Measures
This document discusses practical control measures for mosquitoes that can be implemented on farm.
[English PDF] [Spanish PDF]
General Tick Control Measures
This document discusses the life cycle of ticks and practical control measures that can be implemented on farm.
[English PDF] [Spanish PDF]
Vector-borne Transmission

Resources by Exposure Route

Aerosol Transmission Direct Contact Transmission
Fomite Transmission Oral Transmission
Vector-Borne Transmission Zoonotic Transmission