Direct Contact Exposure

Direct contact exposure requires the presence of an agent or organism in the environment or within an infected animal. A susceptible animal becomes exposed when the agent directly touches open wounds, mucous membranes, or the skin through blood, saliva, nose to nose contact, rubbing or biting. It is important to note that depending on the disease agent, it is possible for direct contact exposure to occur between animals of difference species, as well as to humans.

Reproductive Transmission

This route of transmission is a subtype of direct contact that encompasses those diseases spread through venereal and in-utero routes. Venereal transmission is the spread of pathogenic agents from animal-to-animal through coitus. In-utero transmission is the spread of pathogenic agents.

Resources and Information

Practical Applications: Direct Contact and Fomite
These PowerPoint presentations outline specific practical measures to minimize the risk of direct contact and fomite transmitted diseases.
Beef:
[English PPT] [English Speaker Notes PDF]
[Spanish PPT] [Spanish Speaker Notes PDF]
Dairy:
[English PPT] [English Speaker Notes PDF]
[Spanish PPT] [Spanish Speaker Notes PDF]

Direct Contact Transmission Control
This document summarizes the focus area of managing diseases spread by direct contact on beef and dairy operations and can be used to supplement the Direct Contact and Fomite PowerPoint listed above.
[English PDF] [Spanish PDF]
Bull Breeding Soundness Exam
[English PDF]
Direct Contact Transmission

Resources by Exposure Route

Aerosol Transmission Direct Contact Transmission
Fomite Transmission Oral Transmission
Vector-Borne Transmission Zoonotic Transmission