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EEDA Textbook References: Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease)

Acha PN, Szyfres B [Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)]. Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals. Volume 3. Parasitoses. 3rd ed. Washington DC: PAHO; 2003. Scientific and Technical Publication No. 580. Chagas disease; p. 23 -34.

Barr SC. American trypanosomiasis in dogs. Compend Contin Educ Vet Pract 1991;13:745-754.

Barr, SC, Brown CC, Dennis VA, Klei TR. Infections of inbred mice with three Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from Louisiana mammals. J Parasitol. 1990;76(6):918-21.

Barr SC, Brown CC, Dennis VA, Klei TR. The lesions and prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in opossums and armadillos from southern Louisiana. J Parasitol. 1991;77(4):624-7.

Barr SC, Gossett KA, Klei TR. Clinical, clinicopathologic, and parasitologic observations of trypanosomiasis in dogs infected with North American Trypanosoma cruzi isolates. Am J Vet Res. 1991;52(6):954-60.

Barr SC, Van Beek O, Carlisle-Nowak MS, Lopez JW, Kirchhoff LV, Allison N, Zajac A, de Lahunta A, Schlafer DH, Crandall WT. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Walker hounds from Virginia. Am J Vet Res. 1995;56(8):1037-44.

Beard CB, Pye G, Steurer FJ, Rodriguez R, Campman R, Peterson AT, Ramsey J, Wirtz RA, Robinson LE. Chagas disease in a domestic transmission cycle, southern Texas. USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(1):103-5.

Beaver PC, Jung RC, Cupp EW. Clinical parasitology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1984. Trypanosoma cruzi; p. 88-96.

Blum JA, Zellweger MJ, Burri C, Hatz C. Cardiac involvement in African and American trypanosomiasis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8(10):631-41.

Bradley, KK Bergman DK, Woods JP, Crutcher JM, Kirchhoff LV. Prevalence of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) among dogs in Oklahoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000;217(12):1853-7.

Braund KG, editor. Clinical neurology in small animals - localization, diagnosis and treatment. Ithaca, NY: International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS); 2003 Feb. Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Available at: Accessed 2 Feb 2006.

Carlier Y, Luquetti AO, Dias JCP, Truyens C, Kirchhoff L. Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis).; 2003 Feb. Available at: Accessed 3 Feb 2006.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Chagas’ disease fact sheet [online]. CDC; 2004 Sept. Available at:* Accessed 1 Feb 2006.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Trypanosomiasis, American [online]. Available at: Accessed 25 Jan 2006.

Corti, M. AIDS and Chagas’ disease. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2000;14(11):581-8.

Coura JR, Dias JC. Epidemiology, control and surveillance of Chagas disease--100 years after its discovery. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104(4):31-40.

Cruz-Chan JV, Bolio-González M, Colín-Flores R, Ramirez-Sierra MJ, Quijano-Hernandez I, Dumonteil E. Immunopathology of natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs.Vet Parasitol. 2009 ;162(1-2):151-5.

Delgado MA, Santos-Buch CA. Transplacental transmission and fetal parasitosis of Trypanosoma cruzi in outbred white Swiss mice. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1978;27(6):1108-15.

Devera R, Fernandes O, Coura JR. Should Trypanosoma cruzi be called “cruzi” complex? A review of the parasite diversity and the potential of selecting population after in vitro culturing and mice infection. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003;98(1):1-12.

Dias JC. Elimination of Chagas disease transmission: perspectives. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104(4):41-5.

Garcia S, Ramos CO, Senra JF, Vilas-Boas F, Rodrigues MM, Campos-de-Carvalho AC, Ribeiro-Dos-Santos R, Soares MB. Treatment with benznidazole during the chronic phase of experimental Chagas’ disease decreases cardiac alterations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49(4):1521-8.

Herwaldt BL. Laboratory-acquired parasitic infections from accidental exposures. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001;14(4):659-88

Holzworth J, editor. Diseases of the cat. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1987. Trypanosomiasis; p. 399

Jimenez-Coello M, Poot-Cob M, Ortega-Pacheco A, Guzman-Marin E, Ramos-Ligonio A, Sauri-Arceo CH, Acosta-Viana KY. American trypanosomiasis in dogs from an urban and rural area of Yucatan, Mexico. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8(6):755-61.

Kirchhoff LV. American trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ disease). Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1996;25(3):517-33.

Kirchhoff LV. American trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ disease)--a tropical disease now in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(9): 639-44.

Kirchhoff LV. Chagas disease. American trypanosomiasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1993;7(3):487-502.

Kirchhoff LV. Changing epidemiology and approaches to therapy for Chagas disease. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2003; 5:59-65.

Kirchhoff LV, Paredes P, Lomeli-Guerrero A, Paredes-Espinoza M, Ron-Guearror CS, Delgado-Mejia M, Pena-Munoz JG. Transfusion-associated Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in Mexico: implications for transfusion medicine in the United States. Transfusion. 2006;46(2):298-304.

Kirchhoff LV, Votava JR, Ochs DE, Moser DR. Comparison of PCR and microscopic methods for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34(5):1171-5.

Kjos SA, Snowden KF, Craig TM, Lewis B, Ronald N, Olson JK. Distribution and characterization of canine Chagas disease in Texas. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152(3-4):249-56.

Leiby DA, Read EJ, Lenes BA, Yund AJ, Stumpf RJ, Kirchhoff LV, Dodd RY. Seroepidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas’ disease, in US blood donors. J Infect Dis. 1997;176(4):1047-52.

Leiby DA, Rentas FJ, Nelson KE, Stambolis VA, Ness PM, Parnis C, McAllister HA Jr, Yawn DH, Stumpf RJ, Kirchhoff LV. Evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection (Chagas’ disease) among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Circulation. 2000 12;102(24):2978-82.

Macedo AM, Oliveira RP, Pena SD. Chagas disease: role of parasite genetic variation in pathogenesis. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2002;4(5):1-16.

Machado EM, Fernandes AJ, Murta SM, Vitor RW, Camilo DJ Jr, Pinheiro SW, Lopes ER, Adad SJ, Romanha AJ, Pinto Dias JC. A study of experimental reinfection by Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65(6):958-65.

Marcili A, Lima L, Valente VC, Valente SA, Batista JS, Junqueira AC, Souza AI, da Rosa JA, Campaner M, Lewis MD, Llewellyn MS, Miles MA, Teixeira MM. Comparative phylogeography of Trypanosoma cruzi TCIIc: New hosts, association with terrestrial ecotopes, and spatial clustering. Infect Genet Evol. 2009 Jul 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Meurs KM, Anthony MA, Slater M, Miller MW. Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs: 11 cases (1987-1996). JAVMA 1998;213(4):497-500.

Montenegro VM, Jimenez M, Dias JC, Zeledon R. Chagas disease in dogs from endemic areas of Costa Rica. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97(4):491-4.

Mjihdi A, Lambot MA, Stewart IJ, Detournay O, Noel JC, Carlier Y, Truyens C. Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mouse induces infertility or placental parasite invasion and ischemic necrosis associated with massive fetal loss. Am J Pathol. 2002;161(2):673-80.

Nabity MB, Barnhart K, Logan KS, Santos RL, Kessell A, Melmed C, Snowden KF. An atypical case of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a young English Mastiff. Vet Parasitol. 2006;140(3-4):356-61.

Ndao M, Kelly N, Normandin D, Maclean JD, Whiteman A, Kokoskin E, Arevalo I, Ward BJ. Trypanosoma cruzi infection of squirrel monkeys: comparison of blood smear examination, commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and polymerase chain reaction analysis as screening tests for evaluation of monkey-related injuries. Comp Med. 2000;50(6):658-65.

Prata A. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease. Lancet Infect Dis. 2001;1(2): 92-100.

Ramsey JM, Schofield CJ. Control of Chagas disease vectors. Salud Publica Mex. 2003;45(2):123-8.

Shadomy SV, Waring SC, Martins-Filho OA, Oliveira RC, Chappell CL. Combined use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry to detect antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in domestic canines in Texas. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11(2):313-9.

Tanowitz HB, Kirchhoff LV, Simon D, Morris SA, Weiss LM, Wittner M. Chagas’ disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1992;5(4):400-19.

Tarleton RL. Parasite persistence in the aetiology of Chagas disease. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31(5-6): 550-4.

Valente SA, da Costa Valente V, das Neves Pinto AY, de Jesus Barbosa César M, dos Santos MP, Miranda CO, Cuervo P, Fernandes O. Analysis of an acute Chagas disease outbreak in the Brazilian Amazon: human cases, triatomines, reservoir mammals and parasites. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103(3):291-7.

Yabsley MJ, Noblet GP. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in raccoons from South Carolina and Georgia. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38(1):75-83.

Woods JP, Decker LS, Meinkoth J, Steurer S. Lymph node aspirate from a 4-month-old mastiff with weight loss, lymphadenopathy, and pyrexia. Vet Clin Pathol. 2000; 29: 137-139.