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EEDA Textbook References: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy

Aguzzi A, Heikenwalder M, Miele G. Progress and problems in the biology, diagnostics, and therapeutics of prion diseases. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:153-160.

Alverson J, O'Rourke KI, Baszler TV. PrPSc accumulation in fetal cotyledons of scrapie-resistant lambs is influenced by fetus location in the uterus. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1035-41.

Anderson CA, Bosque P, Filley CM, Arciniegas DB, Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK, Pape WJ, Tyler KL. Colorado surveillance program for chronic wasting disease transmission to humans: lessons from 2 highly suspicious but negative cases. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:439-41.

Andreoletti O, Lacroux C, Chabert A, Monnereau L, Tabouret G, Lantier F, Berthon P, Eychenne F, Lafond-Benestad S, Elsen JM, Schelcher F. PrP(Sc) accumulation in placentas of ewes exposed to natural scrapie: influence of foetal PrP genotype and effect on ewe-to-lamb transmission. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:2607-16.

Andreoletti O, Morel N, Lacroux C, Rouillon V, Barc C, Tabouret G, Sarradin P, Berthon P, Bernardet P, Mathey J, Lugan S, Costes P, Corbière F, Espinosa JC, Torres JM, Grassi J, Schelcher F, Lantier F. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in spleen from an ARR/ARR orally exposed sheep. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1043-1046.

Andreoletti O, Simon S, Lacroux C, Morel N, Tabouret G, Chabert A, Lugan S, Corbiere F, Ferre P, Foucras G, Laude H, Eychenne F, Grassi J, Schelcher F. PrPSc accumulation in myocytes from sheep incubating natural scrapie. Nat Med. 2004;10:591-3.

Animal Health Australia. The National Animal Health Information System (NAHIS). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy [online]. Available at:–bin/aphb/ahsq?dislist=alpha.* Accessed 7 Nov 2001.

Animal Health Australia. The National Animal Health Information System (NAHIS). Scrapie [online]. Available at: http://www.* Accessed 7 Nov 2001.

Angers RC, Browning SR, Seward TS, Sigurdson CJ, Miller MW, Hoover EA, Telling GC. Prions in skeletal muscles of deer with chronic wasting disease. Science. 2006;311:1117.

Arnold ME, Wilesmith JW. Estimation of the age-dependent risk of infection to BSE of dairy cattle in Great Britain. Prev Vet Med. 2004;66:35-47.

Arsac JN, Andreoletti O, Bilheude JM, Lacroux C, Benestad SL, Baron T. Similar biochemical signatures and prion protein genotypes in atypical scrapie and Nor98 cases, France and Norway. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:58-65.

Baeten LA, Powers BE, Jewell JE, Spraker TR, Miller MW. A natural case of chronic wasting disease in a free-ranging moose (Alces alces shirasi). J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:309-14.

Balter M. Intriguing clues to a scrapie-mad cow link. Science. 2001;292:827-829.

Barlow RM. Transmissible mink encephalopathy: pathogenesis and nature of the aetiological agent. J Clin Pathol Suppl (R Coll Pathol). 1972;6:102-9.

Baron T, Belli P, Madec JY, Moutou F, Vitaud C, Savey M. Spongiform encephalopathy in an imported cheetah in France. Vet Rec. 1997;141:270-271.

Baron T, Bencsik A, Biacabe AG, Morignat E, Bessen RA. Phenotypic similarity of transmissible mink encephalopathy in cattle and L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a mouse model. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1887-94.

Baron T, Biacabe AG, Arsac JN, Benestad S, Groschup MH. Atypical transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in ruminants. Vaccine. 2007;25:5625-5630.

Bartz JC, Kincaid AE, Bessen RA. Rapid prion neuroinvasion following tongue infection. J Virol. 2003;77:583-91.

Bartz JC, McKenzie DI, Bessen RA, Marsh RF, Aiken JM. Transmissible mink encephalopathy species barrier effect between ferret and mink: PrP gene and protein analysis. J Gen Virol. 1994;75:2947-53.

Beekes M, McBride PA. The spread of prions through the body in naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. FEBS J. 2007;274:588-605.

Belay ED, Maddox RA, Williams ES, Miller MW, Gambetti P, Schonberger LB. Chronic wasting disease and potential transmission to humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:977-84.

Bellworthy SJ, Dexter G, Stack M, Chaplin M, Hawkins SA, Simmons MM, Jeffrey M, Martin S, Gonzalez L, Hill P. Natural transmission of BSE between sheep within an experimental flock. Vet Rec. 2005;157:206.

Benestad SL, Sarradin P, Thu B, Schonheit J, Tranulis MA, Bratberg B. Cases of scrapie with unusual features in Norway and designation of a new type, Nor98. Vet Rec. 2003;153:202-8.

Béringue V, Andréoletti O, Le Dur A, Essalmani R, Vilotte JL, Lacroux C, Reine F, Herzog L, Biacabé AG, Baron T, Caramelli M, Casalone C, Laude H. A bovine prion acquires an epidemic bovine spongiform encephalopathy strain-like phenotype on interspecies transmission. J Neurosci. 2007;27:6965-6971.

Bessen RA, Marsh RF. Biochemical and physical properties of the prion protein from two strains of the transmissible mink encephalopathy agent. J Virol. 1992;66:2096-101.

Bradshaw JM, Pearson GR, Gruffydd-Jones TJ. A retrospective study of 286 cases of neurological disorders of the cat. J Comp Pathol. 2004;131:112-20.

Braun U, Gerspach C, Ryhner T, Hauri S. Pacing as a clinical sign in cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vet Rec. 2004;155:420-422.

Brown P, Abee CR. Working with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents. ILAR J. 2005;46:44-52.

Brown P, Gajdusek DC. Survival of scrapie virus after 3 years' interment. Lancet. 1991;337:269-70.

Brown P, McShane LM, Zanusso G, Detwile L. On the question of sporadic or atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1816-1821.

Buschmann A, Biacabe AG, Ziegler U, Bencsik A, Madec JY, Erhardt G, Luhken G, Baron T, Groschup MH. Atypical scrapie cases in Germany and France are identified by discrepant reaction patterns in BSE rapid tests. J Virol Methods. 2004;117:27-36.

Buschmann A, Luhken G, Schultz J, Erhardt G, Groschup MH. Neuronal accumulation of abnormal prion protein in sheep carrying a scrapie-resistant genotype (PrPARR/ARR). J Gen Virol. 2004;85:2727-33.

Carmona P, Monzon M, Monleon E, Badiola JJ, Monreal J. In vivo detection of scrapie cases from blood by infrared spectroscopy. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:3425-31.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Chronic wasting disease [online]. CDC; 2007 Jan. Available at: Accessed 19 Sept. 2008.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Fact sheet: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease [online]. CDC; 2007 Jan. Available at: Accessed 20 Aug 2007.

Chang B, Cheng X, Yin S, Pan T, Zhang H, Wong P, Kang SC, Xiao F, Yan H, Li C, Wolfe LL, Miller MW, Wisniewski T, Greene MI, Sy MS. Test for detection of disease-associated prion aggregate in the blood of infected but asymptomatic animals. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:36-43.

Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance. Carcass transportation regulations in the United States and Canada [online]. Available at: Accessed 19 Sept 2008.

Cunningham AA, Kirkwood JK, Dawson M, Spencer YI, Green RB, Wells GA. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1044-1049.

Doherr MG. Brief review on the epidemiology of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). Vaccine. 2007;25:5619-5624.

Eckroade RJ: 1972. Neuropathology and experimental transmission to other species of transmissible mink encephalopathy. PhD Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.

Eckroade RJ, Zu Rhein GM, Hanson RP: Transmissible mink encephalopathy in carnivores: clinical, light and electron microscopic studies in raccoons, skunks and ferrets. J Wild1 Dis 9:229-240, 1973.

Eckroade RJ, Zu Rhein GM, Marsh RF, Hanson RP. Transmissible mink encephalopathy: experimental transmission to the squirrel monkey Science. 1970;169:1088-90.

Editorial team. Fourth case of transfusion-associated vCJD infection in the United Kingdom. Euro Surveill. 2007;12:E070118.4.

Eghiaian F, Grosclaude J, Lesceu S, Debey P, Doublet B, Tréguer E, Rezaei H, Knossow M. Insight into the PrPC -> PrPSc conversion from the structures of antibody-bound ovine prion scrapie-susceptibility variants Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10254-10259.

Eloit M, Adjou K, Coulpier M, Fontaine JJ, Hamel R, Lilin T, Messiaen S, Andreoletti O, Baron T, Bencsik A, Biacabe AG, Beringue V, Laude H, Le Dur A, Vilotte JL, Comoy E, Deslys JP, Grassi J, Simon S, Lantier F, Sarradin P. BSE agent signatures in a goat. Vet Rec. 2005;156:523-524.

Espinosa JC, Andréoletti O, Castilla J, Herva ME, Morales M, Alamillo E, San-Segundo FD, Lacroux C, Lugan S, Salguero FJ, Langeveld J, Torres JM. Sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent exhibits altered pathobiological properties in bovine-PrP transgenic mice. Virol. 2007;81:835-843.

Espinosa JC, Morales M, Castilla J, Rogers M, Torres JM. Progression of prion infectivity in asymptomatic cattle after oral bovine spongiform encephalopathy challenge. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1379-1383.

European Food Safety Authority [EFSA]. EFSA opinion on the likelihood of BSE infectivity in specified risk material. EFSA; 2007 Jul. Available at: Accessed 25 Aug 2007.

European Food Safety Authority [EFSA] Scientific Expert Group. Scientific report of the European Food Safety Authority on the evaluation of rapid post mortem TSE tests intended for small ruminants.EFSA; 2005 May. 17 p. Question no. EFSA-Q-2003-084. Available at: Accessed 4 Apr. 2007.

Everest SJ, Thorne L, Barnicle DA, Edwards JC, Elliott H, Jackman R, Hope J. Atypical prion protein in sheep brain collected during the British scrapie-surveillance programme. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:471-7.

Everest SJ, Thorne LT, Hawthorn JA, Jenkins R, Hammersley C, Ramsay AM, Hawkins SA, Venables L, Flynn L, Sayers R, Kilpatrick J, Sach A, Hope J, Jackman R. No abnormal prion protein detected in the milk of cattle infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2433-2441.

Fischer JR, Nettles VF (College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia). National chronic wasting disease surveillance in free-ranging cervids: accomplishments and needs [online]. In: USAHA 2002 Proceedings; 2002 Oct 20-23; St. Louis, MO. Available at:* Accessed 2 Dec 2003.

Fichet G, Comoy E, Dehen C, Challier L, Antloga K, Deslys JP, McDonnell G. Investigations of a prion infectivity assay to evaluate methods of decontamination. J Microbiol Methods. 2007;70:511-8.

Fichet G, Comoy E, Duval C, Antloga K, Dehen C, Charbonnier A, McDonnell G, Brown P, Lasmézas CI, Deslys JP. Novel methods for disinfection of prion-contaminated medical devices. Lancet. 2004;364:521-526.

Foster J, McKenzie C, Parnham D, Drummond D, Chong A, Goldman W, Hunter N. Lateral transmission of natural scrapie to scrapie-free New Zealand sheep placed in an endemically infected UK flock. Vet Rec. 2006;159:633-4.

Gavier-Widen D, Noremark M, Benestad S, Simmons M, Renstrom L, Bratberg B, Elvander M, af Segerstad CH. Recognition of the Nor98 variant of scrapie in the Swedish sheep population. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16:562-7.

Gavier-Widén D, Stack MJ, Baron T, Balachandran A, Simmons M. Diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in animals: a review. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2005;17:509-27.

Georgsson G, Sigurdarson S, Brown P. Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3737-40.

Giovannini A, Savini L, Conte A, Fiore GL. Comparison of BSE prevalence estimates from EU countries for the period July to December 2001 to the OIE and EU GBR classifications. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2005;52:262-271.

Goldmann W. PrP genetics in ruminant transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Vet Res. 2008;39:30.

Goldmann W, Hunter N, Smith G, Foster J, Hope J. PrP genotype and agent effects in scrapie: change in allelic interaction with different isolates of agent in sheep, a natural host of scrapie. J Gen Virol. 1994;75:989-995.

Gombojav A, Ishiguro N, Horiuchi M, Shinagawa M. Unique amino acid polymorphisms of PrP genes in Mongolian sheep breeds. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:1293-5.

González L, Chianini F, Martin S, Sisó S, Gibbard L, Reid HW, Jeffrey M. Comparative titration of experimental ovine BSE infectivity in sheep and mice. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:714-717.

Gould DH, Voss JL, Miller MW, Bachand AM, Cummings BA, Frank AA. Survey of cattle in northeast Colorado for evidence of chronic wasting disease: geographical and high-risk targeted sample. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:274-7.

Greenwood P. Federal disease control--scrapie. Can Vet J. 2002;43:625-9.

Hadlow WJ, Karstad L. Transmissible encephalopathy of mink in Ontario. Can Vet J. 1968;9:193-6.

Hadlow WJ, Race RE, Kennedy RC. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with transmissible mink encephalopathy virus. Can J Vet Res. 1987;51:135-44.

Happ GM, Huson HJ, Beckmen KB, Kennedy LJ. Prion protein genes in caribou from Alaska. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:224-8.

Hamir AN, Miller JM, O'Rourke KI, Bartz JC, Stack MJ, Chaplin MJ. Transmission of transmissible mink encephalopathy to raccoons (Procyon lotor) by intracerebral inoculation. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16:57-63.

Heim D, Mumford E. The future of BSE from the global perspective. Meat Sci. 2005;70:555-562.

Henry C, Knight R. Clinical features of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Rev Med Virol. 2002;12:143-150.

Hill AF, Collinge J. Subclinical prion infection in humans and animals. Br Med Bull. 2003;66:161-70.

Hilton DA. Pathogenesis and prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Pathol. 2006;208:134-141.

Hoffmann C, Ziegler U, Buschmann A, Weber A, Kupfer L, Oelschlegel A, Hammerschmidt B, Groschup MH. Prions spread via the autonomic nervous system from the gut to the central nervous system in cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1048-1055.

Horby P. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: an unfolding epidemic of misfolded proteins. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002;38:539-542.

Hunter N. Scrapie and experimental BSE in sheep. Br Med Bull. 2003;66:171-183.

Irani DN. Johns Hopkins Department of Neurology. Resource on prion diseases [online]. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Available at: http://www.jhu––bse–hist.shtml.* Accessed 7 Nov 2001.

Irani DN. Johns Hopkins Department of Neurology. Resource on prion diseases [online]. Feline spongiform encephalopathy. Available at:* Accessed 7 Nov 2001.

Irani DN. Scrapie [online]. Johns Hopkins Department of Neurology. Resource on prion diseases. Available at:* Accessed 7 Nov 2001.

Irani DN. Johns Hopkins Department of Neurology. Resource on prion diseases [online]. Transmissible mink encephalopathy. Available at:* Accessed 7 Nov 2001.

Jacques CN, Jenks JA, Jenny AL, Griffin SL. Prevalence of chronic wasting disease and bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging deer and elk in South Dakota. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:29-34.

Jewell JE, Brown J, Kreeger T, Williams ES.  Prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting disease. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3443-50.

Kahn CM, Line S, editors. The Merck veterinary manual [online]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2006. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Available at: Accessed 16 Aug 2007.

Kahn CM, Line S, editors. The Merck veterinary manual [online]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2006. Chronic wasting disease. Available at: Accessed 18 Sept 2008.

Kahn CM, Line S, editors. The Merck veterinary manual [online]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2006. Scrapie. Available at:

Kahn CM, Line S, editors. The Merck veterinary manual [online]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2006. Transmissible mink encephalopathy (Mink scrapie). Available at: Accessed 11 Oct 2008.

Kariv-Inbal Z, Ben-Hur T, Grigoriadis NC, Engelstein R, Gabizon R. Urine from scrapie-infected hamsters comprises low levels of prion infectivity. Neurodegener Dis. 2006;3:123-8

Kelly DF, Wells GA, Haritani M, Higgins RJ, Jeffrey M. Neuropathological findings in cats with clinically suspect but histologically unconfirmed feline spongiform encephalopathy. Vet Rec. 2005;156:472-477.

Kim TY, Shon HJ, Joo YS, Mun UK, Kang KS, Lee YS. Additional cases of chronic wasting disease in imported deer in Korea. J Vet Med Sci. 2005;67:753-9.

Kong Q, Huang S, Zou W, Vanegas D, Wang M, Wu D, Yuan J, Zheng M, Bai H, Deng H, Chen K, Jenny AL, O'Rourke K, Belay ED, Schonberger LB, Petersen RB, Sy MS, Chen SG, Gambetti P. Chronic wasting disease of elk: transmissibility to humans examined by transgenic mouse models. J Neurosci. 2005;25:7944-9.

Konold T, Bone G, Ryder S, Hawkins SA, Courtin F, Berthelin-Baker C. Clinical findings in 78 suspected cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Great Britain. Vet Rec. 2004;155:659-666.

Konold T, Davis A, Bone G, Bracegirdle J, Everitt S, Chaplin M, Saunders GC, Cawthraw S, Simmons MM. Clinical findings in two cases of atypical scrapie in sheep: a case report. BMC Vet Res. 2007;13;3:2.

Kreeger TJ, Montgomery DL, Jewell JE, Schultz W, Williams ES. Oral transmission of chronic wasting disease in captive Shira's moose. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:640-5.

Kubler E, Oesch B, Raeber AJ. Diagnosis of prion diseases. Br Med Bull. 2003;66:267-279.

Lacroux C, Corbiere F, Tabouret G, Lugan S, Costes P, Mathey J, Delmas JM, Weisbecker JL, Foucras G, Cassard H, Elsen JM, Schelcher F, Andreoletti O. Dynamics and genetics of PrPSc placental accumulation in sheep. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1056-61.

Lasmézas CI, Comoy E, Hawkins S, Herzog C, Mouthon F, Konold T, Auvré F, Correia E, Lescoutra-Etchegaray N, Salès N, Wells G, Brown P, Deslys JP. Risk of oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in primates. Lancet. 2005;365:781-783.

Le Dur A, Beringue V, Andreoletti O, Reine F, Lai TL, Baron T, Bratberg B, Vilotte JL, Sarradin P, Benestad SL, Laude H. A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16031-6.

Lezmi S, Bencsik A, Monks E, Petit T, Baron T. First case of feline spongiform encephalopathy in a captive cheetah born in France: PrP(sc) analysis in various tissues revealed unexpected targeting of kidney and adrenal gland. Histochem Cell Biol. 2003;119:415-22.

Lord Phillips, chair. The BSE inquiry: The report. A report to the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the Secretary of State for Health and the Secretaries of State for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Report no. HC 887-1. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office; 2000. Available at: Accessed 2006 Jan.

Ludlam CA, Turner ML. Managing the risk of transmission of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease by blood products. Br J Haematol. 2006;132:13-24.

Luhken G, Buschmann A, Brandt H, Eiden M, Groschup MH, Erhardt G. Epidemiological and genetical differences between classical and atypical scrapie cases. Vet Res. 2007;38:65-80.

Marsh RF. Animal model of human disease: Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (slow virus infections). Animal model: transmissible mink encephalopathy, scrapie-like disease of mink. Am J Pathol. 1972;69:209-12.

Marsh RF, Kincaid AE, Bessen RA, Bartz JC. Interspecies transmission of chronic wasting disease prions to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). J Virol. 2005;79:13794-6.

Masujin K, Matthews D, Wells GA, Mohri S, Yokoyama T. Prions in the peripheral nerves of bovine spongiform encephalopathy-affected cattle. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1850-1858.

Mathiason CK, Powers JG, Dahmes SJ, Osborn DA, Miller KV, Warren RJ, Mason GL, Hays SA, Hayes-Klug J, Seelig DM, Wild MA, Wolfe LL, Spraker TR, Miller MW, Sigurdson CJ, Telling GC, Hoover EA. Infectious prions in the saliva and blood of deer with chronic wasting disease. Science. 2006;314:133-6.

McKenzie D, Bartz JC, Marsh RF. Transmissible mink encephalopathy.  Semin. Virol. 1996;7:201-206.

Miller MW, Wild MA. Epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in captive white-tailed and mule deer. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40:320-7.

Miller MW, Williams ES, Hobbs NT, Wolfe LL. Environmental sources of prion transmission in mule deer. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1003-6.

Moum T, Olsaker I, Hopp P, Moldal T, Valheim M, Moum T, Benestad SL. Polymorphisms at codons 141 and 154 in the ovine prion protein gene are associated with scrapie Nor98 cases. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:231–235.

Novakofski J, Brewer MS, Mateus-Pinilla N, Killefer J, McCusker RH. Prion biology relevant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Anim Sci. 2005;83:1455-1476.

Onnasch H, Gunn HM, Bradshaw BJ, Benestad SL, Bassett HF. Two Irish cases of scrapie resembling Nor98. Vet Rec. 2004;155:636-7.

Orge L, Galo A, Machado C, Lima C, Ochoa C, Silva J, Ramos M, Simas JP. Identification of putative atypical scrapie in sheep in Portugal. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:3487–3491.

Pattison J. The emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and related diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4:390-4.

Promed Mail. BSE, sheep - UK: experimental transmission. Aug 19, 2005. Archive Number 20050819.2432. Available at Accessed 2 Apr 2007.

Promed Mail. Chronic wasting disease, elk - South Korea (Kyungsang). Nov 25, 2004. Archive Number 20041125.3155. Available at Accessed 30 Sept 2008.

Promed Mail. Feline spongiform encephalopathy, cat – Switzerland. Aug 24, 2003. Archive Number 20030824.2132. Available at Accessed 19 Sept 2007.

Promed Mail. Feline spongiform encephalopathy, cheetah – Germany. Sept 13, 2007. Archive Number 20070913.3038. Available at Accessed 19 Sept 2007.

Promed Mail. Scrapie, atypical, sheep - USA (WY): 1st report. Mar 18, 2007. Archive Number 20070318.0949. Available at Accessed 2 Apr 2007.

Race BL, Meade-White KD, Ward A, Jewell J, Miller MW, Williams ES, Chesebro B, Race RE. Levels of abnormal prion protein in deer and elk with chronic wasting disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:824-30.

Raymond GJ, Raymond LD, Meade-White KD, Hughson AG, Favara C, Gardner D, Williams ES, Miller MW, Race RE, Caughey B. Transmission and adaptation of chronic wasting disease to hamsters and transgenic mice: evidence for strains. J Virol. 2007;81:4305-14.

Richt JA, Kunkle RA, Alt D, Nicholson EM, Hamir AN, Czub S, Kluge J, Davis AJ, Hall SM. Identification and characterization of two bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases diagnosed in the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19:142-54.

Robinson MM, Hadlow WJ, Huff TP, Wells GA, Dawson M, Marsh RF, Gorham JR. Experimental infection of mink with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Gen Virol. 1994;75:2151-5.

Robinson MM, Hadlow WJ, Knowles DP, Huff TP, Lacy PA, Marsh RF, Gorham JR. Experimental infection of cattle with the agents of transmissible mink encephalopathy and scrapie. J Comp Pathol. 1995;113:241-51.

Ronzon F, Bencsik A, Lezmi S, Vulin J, Kodjo A, Baron T. BSE inoculation to prion diseases-resistant sheep reveals tricky silent carriers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:872-877.

Ryder S, Dexter G, Bellworthy S, Tongue S. Demonstration of lateral transmission of scrapie between sheep kept under natural conditions using lymphoid tissue biopsy. Res Vet Sci. 2004;76:211-7.

Sabuncu E, Petit S, Le Dur A, Lan Lai T, Vilotte JL, Laude H, Vilette D. PrP polymorphisms tightly control sheep prion replication in cultured cells. J Virol. 2003;77:2696-700.

Schuler KL, Jenks JA, DePerno CS, Wild MA, Swanson CC. Tonsillar biopsy test for chronic wasting disease: Two sampling approaches in mule deer and white-tailed deer. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:820-4.

Seeger H, Heikenwalder M, Zeller N, Kranich J, Schwarz P, Gaspert A, Seifert B, Miele G, Aguzzi A. Coincident scrapie infection and nephritis lead to urinary prion excretion. Science. 2005;310:324-6.

Seidel B, Thomzig A, Buschmann A, Groschup MH, Peters R, Beekes M, Terytze K. Scrapie agent (Strain 263K) can transmit disease via the oral route after persistence in soil over years. PLoS ONE. 2007;2(5):e435.

Shimada K, Hayashi HK, Ookubo Y, Iwamaru Y, Imamura M, Takata M, Schmerr MJ, Shinagawa M, Yokoyama T.Rapid PrP(Sc) detection in lymphoid tissue and application to scrapie surveillance of fallen stock in Japan: variable PrP(Sc) accumulation in palatal tonsil in natural scrapie. Microbiol Immunol. 2005;49:801-4.

Sigurdson CJ, Aguzzi A. Chronic wasting disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1772:610-8.

Sigurdson CJ, Miller MW. Other animal prion diseases. Br Med Bull. 2003;66:199-212

Smith M, Sherman D. Goat medicine. Pennsylvania: Lea and Febiger; 1994. Scrapie; p. 133-135.

Smith PG, Bradley R. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and its epidemiology. Br Med Bull. 2003;66:185-198.

Sohn HJ, Kim JH, Choi KS, Nah JJ, Joo YS, Jean YH, Ahn SW, Kim OK, Kim DY, Balachandran A. A case of chronic wasting disease in an elk imported to Korea from Canada. J Vet Med Sci. 2002;64:855-8.

Spencer MD, Knight RS, Will RG. First hundred cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: retrospective case note review of early psychiatric and neurological features. BMJ. 2002;324:1479-82.

Spraker TR, Gidlewski TL, Balachandran A, VerCauteren KC, Creekmore L, Munger RD. Detection of PrP(CWD) in postmortem rectal lymphoid tissues in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) infected with chronic wasting disease. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:553-7.

Stack M, Jeffrey M, Gubbins S, Grimmer S, González L, Martin S, Chaplin M, Webb P, Simmons M, Spencer Y, Bellerby P, Hope J, Wilesmith J, Matthews D. Monitoring for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep in Great Britain, 1998-2004. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2099-2107.

Terry LA, Jenkins R, Thorne L, Everest SJ, Chaplin MJ, Davis LA, Stack MJ. First case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy identified in Great Britain. Vet Rec. 2007;160:873-874.

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Touzeau S, Chase-Topping ME, Matthews L, Lajous D, Eychenne F, Hunter N, Foster JD, Simm G, Elsen JM, Woolhouse ME. Modelling the spread of scrapie in a sheep flock: evidence for increased transmission during lambing seasons. Arch Virol. 2006;151:735-51.

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