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EEDA Textbook References: Surra

Aiello SE, Mays A, editors. The Merck veterinary manual. 8th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co.;1998. Surra; p. 35.

Animal Health Australia. The National Animal Health Information System [NAHIS]. Surra [online]. NAHIS; 2001 Oct. Available at: http://www.* Accessed 31 Oct 2001.

Berlin D, Loeb E, Baneth G. Disseminated central nervous system disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi in a horse. Vet Parasitol. 2009;161(3-4):316-9.

Biswas D, Choudhury A, Misra KK. Histopathology of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi infection in bandicoot rat. I. visceral organs. Exp Parasitol. 2001 Nov;99(3):148-59.

Brun R, Hecker H, Lun ZR. Trypanosoma evansi and T. equiperdum: distribution, biology, treatment and phylogenetic relationship (a review). Vet Parasitol. 1988;79(2): 95–107.

Corwin RM, Nahm J. Trypanosoma evansi, equinum, equiperdum. University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine; 1997. Available at:* Accessed 1 November 2001.

Dargantes AP, Campbell RS, Copeman DB, Reid SA. Experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in the goat. II. Pathology. J Comp Pathol. 2005;133(4):267-76.

Dargantes AP, Mercado RT, Dobson RJ, Reid SA. Estimating the impact of Trypanosoma evansi infection (surra) on buffalo population dynamics in southern Philippines using data from cross-sectional surveys. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39(10):1109-14.

Dargantes AP, Reid SA, Copeman DB. Experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in the goat. I. Clinical signs and clinical pathology. J Comp Pathol. 2005;133(4):261-6.

Desquesnes M, Bossard G, Patrel D, Herder S, Patout O, Lepetitcolin E, Thevenon S, Berthier D, Pavlovic D, Brugidou R, Jacquiet P, Schelcher F, Faye B, Touratier L, Cuny G. First outbreak of Trypanosoma evansi in camels in metropolitan France. Vet Rec. 2008;162(23):750-2.

Desquesnes M, Bossard G, Thévenon S, Patrel D, Ravel S, Pavlovic D, Herder S, Patout O, Lepetitcolin E, Hollzmuller P, Berthier D, Jacquiet P, Cuny G. Development and application of an antibody-ELISA to follow up a Trypanosoma evansi outbreak in a dromedary camel herd in France. Vet Parasitol. 2009;162(3-4):214-20.

Garner G, Saville P, Fediaevsky A. Manual for the recognition of exotic diseases of livestock: A reference guide for animal health staff [online]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; 2003. Surra. Available at: Accessed 27 Aug 2009.

Gutierrez C, Corbera JA, Juste MC, Doreste F, Morales I. An outbreak of abortions and high neonatal mortality associated with Trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels in the Canary Islands. Vet Parasitol. 2005;130(1-2):163-8.

Gutierrez C, Corbera JA, Morales M, Büscher P. Trypanosomosis in goats: current status. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1081:300-10.

Herrera HM, Abreu UG, Keuroghlian A, Freitas TP, Jansen AM. The role played by sympatric collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) as maintenance hosts for Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in a sylvatic area of Brazil. Parasitol Res. 2008;103(3):619-24.

Herrera HM, Alessi AC, Marques LC, Santana AE, Aquino LP, Menezes RF, Moraes MA, Machado RZ. Experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in South American coati (Nasua nasua): hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes. Acta Trop. 2002;81(3):203-10.

Herrera HM, Aquino LP, Menezes RF, Marques LC, Moraes MA, Werther K, Machado RZ. Trypanosoma evansi experimental infection in the South American coati (Nasua nasua): clinical, parasitological and humoral immune response. Vet Parasitol. 2001;102(3):209-16.

Herrera HM, Dávila AM, Norek A, Abreu UG, Souza SS, D'Andrea PS, Jansen AM. Enzootiology of Trypanosoma evansi in Pantanal, Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2004;125(3-4):263-75.

Jones TW, Payne RC, Sukanto LP,  Partoutomo S. Trypanosoma evansi in the Republic of Indonesia [online]. Available at: Accessed 31 Oct 2001.

Joshi PP, Shegokar VR, Powar RM, Herder S, Katti R, Salkar HR, Dani VS, Bhargava  A, Jannin J, Truc P. Human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in India: the first case report. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73(3):491-5.

Laha R, Sasmal NK. Detection of Trypanosoma evansi infection in clinically ill cattle, buffaloes and horses using various diagnostic tests. Epidemiol Infect. 2009 Apr 15:1-3. [Epub ahead of print]

Losos GJ. Diseases caused by Trypanosoma evansi, a review. Vet Res Commun. 1980; 4:165–81.

Lun Z-R, Fang Y, Wang C-J, Brun R. Trypanosomiasis of domestic animals in China. Parasitol Today. 1993;9(2):41–5.

Mandal M, Laha R, Sasmal NK. First report of establishment of Trypanosoma evansi infection in pigeon nestlings (Columba livia). J Parasitol. 2008;94(6):1428-9.

Muhammad G, Saqib M, Sajid MS, Naureen A. Trypanosoma evansi infections in Himalayan black bears (Selenarctos thibetanus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2007;38(1):97-100.

Muñoz K, Chávez A. Trypanosoma evansi isolated from capybara (Hidrochaeris hidrochaeris). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2001;96(7):945-6.

Reid SA, Husein A, Partoutomo S, Copeman DB. The susceptibility of two species of wallaby to infection with Trypanosoma evansi. Aust Vet J. 2001;79(4):285-8.

Reid SA. Trypanosoma evansi control and containment in Australasia. Trends Parasitol. 2002;18(5):219-24.

Rodrigues A, Fighera RA, Souza TM, Schild AL, Barros CS. Neuropathology of naturally occurring Trypanosoma evansi infection of horses. Vet Pathol. 2009;46(2):251-8.

Shegokar VR, Powar RM, Joshi PP, Bhargava A, Dani VS, Katti R, Zare VR, Khanande VD, Jannin J, Truc P. Short report: Human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in a village in India: preliminary serologic survey of the local population. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75(5):869-70.

Tran T, Claes F, Verloo D, De Greve H, Büscher P. Towards a new reference test for surra in camels. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16(7):999-1002.

Truc P, Gibson W, Herder S. Genetic characterization of Trypanosoma evansi isolated from a patient in India. Infect Genet Evol. 2007;7(2):305-7.

Tuntasuvan D, Jarabrum W, Viseshakul N, Mohkaew K, Borisutsuwan S, Theeraphan A, Kongkanjana N. Chemotherapy of surra in horses and mules with diminazene aceturate. Vet Parasitol. 2003;110(3-4):227-33.

Vanhollebeke B, Truc P, Poelvoorde P, Pays A, Joshi PP, Katti R, Jannin JG, Pays E. Human Trypanosoma evansi infection linked to a lack of apolipoprotein L-I. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(26):2752-6.

World Organization for Animal Health [OIE] . Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals [online]. Paris: OIE; 2004. Trypanosoma evansi infections (including surra). Available at: Accessed 27 Aug 2009

*Link defunct as of 2009