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EEDA Textbook References: Leishmaniasis

Anjili CO, Ngichabe CK, Mbati PA, Lugalia RM, Wamwayi HM, Githure JI. Experimental infection of domestic sheep with culture-derived Leishmania donovani promastigotes.Vet Parasitol. 1998;74(2-4):315-8.

Acha PN, Szyfres B. (Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]). Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals. Volume 3. Parasitoses. 3rd ed. Washington DC: PAHO; 2003. Scientific and Technical Publication No. 580. Cutaneous leishmaniasis; p. 38-49.

Acha PN, Szyfres B. (Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]). Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals. Volume 3. Parasitoses. 3rd ed. Washington DC: PAHO; 2003. Scientific and Technical Publication No. 580. Visceral leishmaniasis; p. 86-95.

Anonymous. Diagnosing leishmaniasis [online].; 2004 Jan. Available at:* Accessed 19 May 2004.

Ayllon T, Tesouro MA, Amusategui I, Villaescusa A, Rodriguez-Franco F, Sainz A. Serologic and molecular evaluation of Leishmania infantum in cats from Central Spain.Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1149:361-4.

Bailey MS, Lockwood DN. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Dermatol. 2007;25(2):203-11.

Baneth G, Koutinas AF, Solano-Gallego L, Bourdeau P, Ferrer L. Canine leishmaniosis - new concepts and insights on an expanding zoonosis: part one.Trends Parasitol. 2008;24(7):324-30.

Bañuls AL, Hide M, Prugnolle F. Leishmania and the leishmaniases: a parasite genetic update and advances in taxonomy, epidemiology and pathogenicity in humans. Adv Parasitol. 2007;64:1-109.

Barnes JC, Stanley O, Craig TM. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993;202(3):416-8.

Beck A, Beck R, Kusak J, Gudan A, Martinkovic F, Artukovic B, Hohsteter M, Huber D, Marinculic A, Grabarevic Z. A case of visceral leishmaniosis in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Croatia. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44(2):451-6.

Berman J. Visceral leishmaniasis in the New World & Africa. Indian J Med Res. 2006;123(3):289-94.

Brazil RP, Desterro MD, Nascimento SB, Macau RP. [Natural infection of a pig (Sus scrofa) by Leishmania in a recent focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis on the Island of São Luis, Maranhão] Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1987;82(1):145.

Centers for Disease Control [CDC]. Leishmaniasis [online]. CDC; Available at: Accessed 17 Oct 2009.

Coutinho MT, Bueno LL, Sterzik A, Fujiwara RT, Botelho JR, De Maria M, Genaro O,  Linardi PM. Participation of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniasis.Vet Parasitol. 2005;128(1-2):149-55.

Craig TM, Barton CL, Mercer SH, Droleskey BE, Jones LP. Dermal leishmaniasis in a Texas cat. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986;35(6):1100-2.

Dantas-Torres F. The role of dogs as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, with emphasis on Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Vet Parasitol. 2007;149(3-4):139-46.

Dedet JP, Gay F, Chatenay G. Isolation of Leishmania species from wild mammals in French Guiana. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1989;83(5):613-5.

De Lima H, De Guglielmo Z, Rodríguez A, Convit J, Rodriguez N. Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and black rats (Rattus rattus) as possible reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in Lara State, Venezuela.Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97(2):169-74.

De Lima H, Rodríguez N, Barrios MA, Avila A, Cañizales I, Gutiérrez S. Isolation and molecular identification of Leishmania chagasi from a bat (Carollia perspicillata) in northeastern Venezuela. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103(4):412-4.

Diakou A, Papadopoulos E, Lazarides K. Specific anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in stray cats in Greece. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11(8):728-30.

Dougall A, Shilton C, Low Choy J, Alexander B, Walton S. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137(10):1516-20.

Dubey JP, Bwangamoi O, Courtney SP, Fritz DL. Leishmania-like protozoan associated with dermatitis in cattle. J Parasitol. 1998;84(4):865-7.

Duprey ZH, Steurer FJ, Rooney JA, Kirchhoff LV, Jackson JE, Rowton ED, Schantz PM. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis, United States and Canada, 2000–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12:440-446.

Ferreira MG, Fattori KR, Souza F, Lima VM. Potential role for dog fleas in the cycle of Leishmania spp. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165(1-2):150-4.

Ferrer L. The pathology of canine leishmaniasis [online]. In: Canine leishmaniasis: moving towards a solution. Proceedings of the Second International Canine Leishmaniasis Forum; 2002 February 6-9; Sevilla, Spain. Boxmeer, The Netherlands: Intervet International; 2002. Available at:* Accessed 19 May 2004.

Gibson-Corley KN, Hostetter JM, Hostetter SJ, Mullin K, Ramer-Tait AE, Boggiatto PM, Petersen CA. Disseminated Leishmania infantum infection in two sibling foxhounds due to possible vertical transmission.Can Vet J. 2008;49(10):1005-8.

Glaser TA, Baatz JE, Kreishman GP, Mukkada AJ. pH homeostasis in Leishmania donovani amastigotes and promastigotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85(20):7602-7606.

Gomes YM, Paiva Cavalcanti M, Lira RA, Abath FG, Alves LC. Diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis: biotechnological advances.Vet J. 2008;175(1):45-52.

Gradoni L. The diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis [online]. In: Canine leishmaniasis: moving towards a solution. Proceedings of the Second International Canine Leishmaniasis Forum; 2002 February 6-9; Sevilla, Spain. Boxmeer, The Netherlands: Intervet International; 2002. Available at:* Accessed 19 May 2004.

Gramiccia M, Gradoni L. The current status of zoonotic leishmaniases and approaches to disease control. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35(11-12):1169-80.

Grevot A, Jaussaud Hugues P, Marty P, Pratlong F, Ozon C, Haas P, Breton C, Bourdoiseau G. Leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum in a FIV and FeLV positive cat with a squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed with histological, serological and isoenzymatic methods. Parasite. 2005;12(3):271-5.

Gustafson TL, Reed CM, McGreevy PB, Pappas MG, Fox JC, Lawyer PG. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired in Texas.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1985;34(1):58-63.

Hatam GR, Adnani SJ, Asgari Q, Fallah E, Motazedian MH, Sadjjadi SM, Sarkari B. First report of natural infection in cats with Leishmania infantum in Iran. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print]

Kahn CM, Line S, editors. The Merck veterinary manual [online]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2006. Visceral leishmaniasis. Available at: Accessed 18 Oct 2009.

Kerr SF, McHugh CP, Dronen NO Jr. Leishmaniasis in Texas: prevalence and seasonal transmission of Leishmania mexicana in Neotoma micropus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;53(1):73-7.

Lainson R, Shaw JJ. Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi sp. n., a parasite of the armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus (L.) in Amazonian Brazil.Ann Parasitol Hum Comp. 1989;64(1):3-9.

Luppi MM, Malta MC, Silva TM, Silva FL, Motta RO, Miranda I, Ecco R, Santos RL. Visceral leishmaniasis in captive wild canids in Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155(1-2):146-51. Epub 2008 May 14.

Madeira Mde F, Schubach Ade O, Schubach TM, Serra CM, Pereira SA, Figueiredo FB,  Confort EM, Quintella LP, Marzochi MC. Is Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis preferentially restricted to the cutaneous lesions of naturally infected dogs? Parasitol Res. 2005;97(1):73-6.

Maia C, Campino L. Methods for diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis and immune response to infection. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158(4):274-87.

Maia C, Nunes M, Campino L. Importance of cats in zoonotic leishmaniasis in Portugal. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8(4):555-9.

Mancianti F. [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?][abstract] Parassitologia. 2004;46(1-2):203-6.

Marcos R, Santos M, Malhão F, Pereira R, Fernandes AC, Montenegro L, Roccabianca P. Pancytopenia in a cat with visceral leishmaniasis.Vet Clin Pathol. 2009;38(2):201-5.

Maroli M, Pennisi MG, Di Muccio T, Khoury C, Gradoni L, Gramiccia M. Infection of sandflies by a cat naturally infected with Leishmania infantum.Vet Parasitol. 2007;145(3-4):357-60.

Martín-Sánchez J, Acedo C, Muñoz-Pérez M, Pesson B, Marchal O, Morillas-Márquez F. Infection by Leishmania infantum in cats: epidemiological study in Spain.Vet Parasitol. 2007;145(3-4):267-73.

McHugh CP, Grogl M, Kreutzer RD. Isolation of Leishmania mexicana (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) from Lutzomyia anthrophora (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in Texas. J Med Entomol 1993;30:631–633).

Miró G, Cardoso L, Pennisi MG, Oliva G, Baneth G. Canine leishmaniosis--new concepts and insights on an expanding zoonosis: part two. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24(8):371-7.

Moraes-Silva E, Antunes FR, Rodrigues MS, da Silva Julião F, Dias-Lima AG, Lemos-de-Sousa V, de Alcantara AC, Reis EA, Nakatani M, Badaró R, Reis MG, Pontes-de-Carvalho L, Franke CR. Domestic swine in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area produce antibodies against multiple Leishmania infantum antigens but apparently resist to L. infantum infection. Acta Trop. 2006;98(2):176-82.

Morsy TA, Al-Dakhil MA, El-Bahrawy AF. Natural Leishmania infection in sand cats captured in Riyadh district, Saudi Arabia. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 1999;29(1):69-74.

Mukhtar MM, Sharief AH, el Saffi SH, Harith AE, Higazzi TB, Adam AM, Abdalla HS. Detection of antibodies to Leishmania donovani in animals in a kala-azar endemic region in eastern Sudan: a preliminary report. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000;94(1):33-6.

Muller GH, Kirk RW, Scott DW. Small animal dermatology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1989. Leishmaniasis; p 293-294.

Müller N, Welle M, Lobsiger L, Stoffel MH, Boghenbor KK, Hilbe M, Gottstein B,Frey CF, Geyer C, von Bomhard W. Occurrence of Leishmania sp. in cutaneous lesions of horses in Central Europe.Vet Parasitol. 2009 Sep 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Murray HW, Berman JD, Davies CR, Saravia NG. Advances in leishmaniasis. Lancet. 2005;366(9496):1561-77.

Mutinga MJ, Kihara SM, Lohding A, Mutero CM, Ngatia TA, Karanu F. Leishmaniasis in Kenya: description of leishmaniasis of a domestic goat from Transmara, Narok District, Kenya.Trop Med Parasitol. 1989;40(2):91-6.

Nasereddin A, Salant H, Abdeen Z. Feline leishmaniasis in Jerusalem: serological investigation.Vet Parasitol. 2008;158(4):364-9.

Neuber H. Leishmaniasis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2008;6(9):754-65.

Pangrazio KK, Costa EA, Amarilla SP, Cino AG, Silva TM, Paixão TA, Costa LF, Dengues EG, Diaz AA, Santos RL. Tissue distribution of Leishmania chagasi and lesions in transplacentally infected fetuses from symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected bitches. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165(3-4):327-31

Petersen CA. New means of canine leishmaniasis transmission in North America: the possibility of transmission to humans still unknown. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2009;2009:802712. Epub 2009 Jun 4.

Piscopo TV, Mallia AC. Leishmaniasis. Postgrad Med J. 2006;82(972):649-57.

Public Health Agency of Canada. Material Safety Data Sheet  Leishmania spp [online]. Office of Laboratory Security; 2001 March. Available at: Accessed 8 May 2004.

Quinnell RJ, Courtenay O. Transmission, reservoir hosts and control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. Parasitology. 2009:1-20. [Epub ahead of print]

Rosypal AC, Zajac AM, Lindsay DS. Canine visceral leishmaniasis and its emergence in the United States.Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2003;33(4):921-37, viii.

Roze M. Ocular manifestations of canine leishmaniasis. Diagnosis and treatment [online]. In: Proceedings from the 27th World Small Animal Veterinary Association [WSAVA] World Congress; 2002 Oct 3-6; Granada, Spain. Available at:

Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2002. Accessed 19 May 2004.

Santiago ME, Vasconcelos RO, Fattori KR, Munari DP, Michelin Ade F, Lima VM. An investigation of Leishmania spp. in Didelphis spp. from urban and peri-urban areas in Bauru (São Paulo, Brazil). Vet Parasitol. 2007;150(4):283-90.

Schantz PM, Steurer FJ, Duprey ZH, Kurpel KP, Barr SC, Jackson JE, Breitschwerdt EB, Levy MG, Fox JC. Autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in North America.J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;226(8):1316-22.

Schantz P, Steurer F, Jackson J, Rooney J, Akey B, Duprey Z, Breitschwerdt E, Rowton E, Gramiccia M. Emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in North America [online]. In: Leishmaniasis Seminar WorldLeish 2; 2001 May 20-24; Crete, Greece. Available at:* Accessed 19 May 2004.

Schubach TM, Figueiredo FB, Pereira SA, Madeira MF, Santos IB, Andrade MV, Cuzzi T, Marzochi MC, Schubach A. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in two cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: first report of natural infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004;98(3):165-7.

Silva FL, Oliveira RG, Silva TM, Xavier MN, Nascimento EF, Santos RL. Venereal transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis.Vet Parasitol. 2009;160(1-2):55-9.

Simões-Mattos L, Mattos MR, Teixeira MJ, Oliveira-Lima JW, Bevilaqua CM, Prata-Júnior RC, Holanda CM, Rondon FC, Bastos KM, Coêlho ZC, Coêlho IC, Barral A, Pompeu MM. The susceptibility of domestic cats (Felis catus) to experimental infection with Leishmania braziliensis.Vet Parasitol. 2005;127(3-4):199-208.

Singh RK, Pandey HP, Sundar S. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar): challenges ahead. Indian J Med Res. 2006;123(3):331-44.

Sobrino R, Ferroglio E, Oleaga A, Romano A, Millan J, Revilla M, Arnal MC,Trisciuoglio A, Gortázar C. Characterization of widespread canine leishmaniasis among wild carnivores from Spain. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155(3-4):198-203.

Solano-Gallego L, Koutinas A, Miró G, Cardoso L, Pennisi MG, Ferrer L, Bourdeau P, Oliva G, Baneth G. Directions for the diagnosis, clinical staging, treatment and prevention of canine leishmaniosis. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165(1-2):1-18..

Strauss-Ayali D, Baneth G. Canine visceral leishmaniasis. In: Recent advances in canine infectious diseases [monograph online]. Carmichael L, editor. Ithaca NY: International Veterinary Information Service [IVIS]; 2001 Available at: Accessed 10 May 2004.

Symmers WS. Leishmaniasis acquired by contagion: a case of marital infection in Britain. Lancet. 1960 16;1(7116):127-32.

Trees, AJ, Howman PJ, Bates P, Noyes HA, Pratlong F, Blakely J, Niles J, Guy MW. Autochthonous canine leishmaniosis in the United Kingdom [online]. In: Leishmaniasis Seminar WorldLeish 2; 2001 May 20-24; Crete, Greece. Available at:* Accessed 19 May 2004.

van der Lugt JJ, Carlyon JF, de Waal DT. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in a sheep. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1992;63(2):74-7.

Vedovello Filho D, Jorge FA, Lonardoni MV, Teodoro U, Silveira TG. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in horses from endemic areas in the north-central mesoregion of Paraná state, Brazil. Zoonoses Public Health. 2008;55(3):149-55.

Williams AO, Mutinga J, Rodgers M. Leishmaniasis in a domestic goat in Kenya. Mol Cell Probes. 1991;5(5):319-25.

World Organization for Animal Health [OIE]. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals [online]. Paris: OIE;  2008. Leishmaniosis. Available at: Accessed 18 Oct 2009.

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