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EEDA Textbook References: Heartwater

Allsopp MT, Van Strijp MF, Faber E, Josemans AI, Allsopp BA. Ehrlichia ruminantium variants which do not cause heartwater found in South Africa. Vet Microbiol. 2007;120:158-66.

Allsopp MT, Allsopp BA. Extensive genetic recombination occurs in the field between different genotypes of Ehrlichia ruminantium. Vet Microbiol. 2007;124:58-65.

Allsopp MT, Louw M, Meyer EC. Ehrlichia ruminantium: an emerging human pathogen? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1063:358-60.

Bath GF, van Wyk JA, Pettey KP. Control measures for some important and unusual goat diseases in southern Africa. Small Rumin Res. 2005; 60: 127-140.

Burridge MJ, Simmons LA, Peter TF, Mahan SM. Increasing risks of introduction of heartwater onto the American mainland associated with animal movements. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;969:269-74.

Faburay B, Jongejan F, Taoufik A, Ceesay A, Geysen D. Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia ruminantium in Amblyomma variegatum ticks and small ruminants in The Gambia determined by restriction fragment profile analysis. Vet Microbiol. 2007 Jun 19; [Epub ahead of print]

Frutos R, Viari A, Ferraz C, Bensaid A, Morgat A, Boyer F, Coissac E, Vachiéry N, Demaille J, Martinez D. Comparative genomics of three strains of Ehrlichia ruminantium: a review. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1081:417-33.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. The Caribbean Amblyomma programme. Background [online]. FAO; 2006 May. Available at: Accessed 29 Sept 2007.

Kahn CM, Line S, editors. The Merck veterinary manual [online]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2003. Heartwater. Available at:
gray_book02/fad/hea.php. Accessed 27 Sept. 2007.

Kiel JL, Alarcon RM, Parker JE, Vivekananda J, Gonzalez YB, Stribling LJ, Andrews CJ. Emerging tick-borne disease in African vipers caused by a Cowdria-like organism. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1081:434–442.

Mare CJ. Heartwater. In: Foreign animal diseases [online]. Richmond, VA: United States Animal Health Association, 1998. Available at: Accessed 27 Sept. 2007.

Pegram RG, Rota A, Onkelinx R, Wilson DD, Bartlette P, Nisbett BS, Swanston G, Vanterpool P, de Castro JJ. Eradicating the tropical bont tick from the Caribbean [online]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. Available at: Accessed 28 Sept 2007.

Peter TF, Burridge MJ, Mahan SM. Ehrlichia ruminantium infection (heartwater) in wild animals. Trends Parasitol. 2002;18:214-8.

United States Animal Health Association [USAHA]. Report of the committee on parasitic diseases [online]. USAHA; 2006. Available at:
reports/2006/report-pd-2006.pdf. Accessed 27 Sept. 2007.

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [USDA APHIS]. Tropical bont tick program profile. USDA APHIS; 2001. Available at:* Accessed 4 Dec 2003.

World Organization for Animal Health [OIE] . Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals [online]. Paris: OIE; 2006. Heartwater. Available at: Accessed 27 Sept. 2007.

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