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EEDA Textbook References: Anthrax

Animal Health Australia. The National Animal Health Information System [NAHIS]. Anthrax [online]. NAHIS; 2001 Oct. Available at:–bin/aphb/ahsq?dislist=alpha.* Accessed 19 Nov 2002.

Avashia SB, Riggins WS, Lindley C, Hoffmaster A, Drumgoole R, Nekomoto T, Jackson PJ, Hill KK, Williams K, Lehman L, Libal MC, Wilkins PP, Alexander J, Tvaryanas A, Betz T. Fatal pneumonia among metalworkers due to inhalation exposure to Bacillus cereus containing Bacillus anthracis toxin genes. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:414-416.

Binkley CE, Cinti S, Simeone DM, Colletti LM. Bacillus anthracis as an agent of bioterrorism: a review emph-asizing surgical treatment. Ann Surg. 2002;236:9-16.

Bischof TS, Hahn BL, Sohnle PG. Characteristics of spore germination in a mouse model of cutaneous anthrax. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:888-894.

Carter ME, Carter GR, Quinn PJ, Markey BK. Clinical veterinary microbiology. London: Mosby; 1994. Bacillus species; p. 178-182.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Anthrax [online] CDC;;2006 Feb. Available at: Accessed 22 Feb 2007.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Use of anthrax vaccine in response to terrorism: supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. JAMA. 2002;288:2681-2682.

Clegg SB, Turnbull PC, Foggin CM, Lindeque PM. Massive outbreak of anthrax in wildlife in the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, Zimbabwe. Vet Rec. 2007;160:113-118.

Fouet A, Smith KL, Keys C, Vaissaire J, Le Doujet C, Levy M, Mock M, Keim P. Diversity among French Bacillus anthracis isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:4732-4734.

Helgason E., Økstad OA, Caugant DA, Johansen HA, Fouet A, Mock M, Hegna I, Kolstø AB. Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis – one species on the basis of genetic evidence. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:2627-2630.

Herenda D, Chambers PG, Ettriqui A, Seneviratna P, da Silva TJP. Manual on meat inspection for developing countries [online]. FAO animal production and health paper 119. Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division, FAO; 1994 (reprinted 2000). Anthrax. Available at: Accessed 21 Feb 2007.

Hoffmaster AR, Hill KK, Gee JE, Marston CK, De BK, Popovic T, Sue D, Wilkins PP, Avashia SB, Drumgoole R, Helma CH, Ticknor LO, Okinaka RT, Jackson PJ. Characterization of Bacillus cereus isolates associated with fatal pneumonias: strains are closely related to Bacillus anthracis and harbor B. anthracis virulence genes. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:3352-60.

Jernigan J A, Raghunathan PL, Bell BP, Bresnitz RB, Butler JC, Cetron M, Cohen M, Doyle R, Greene C, Griffith KS, Guarner J, Hadler J, Hayslett JA, Meyer R, Petersen LR, Phillips M, Pinner R, Popovic T, Quinn CP, Reefhuis J, Reissman D, Rosenstein N, Schuchat A, Shieh W, Siegal L, Swerdlow DL, Tenover FC, Traeger M, Ward JW, Weisfuse I, Wiersma S, Yeskey K, Zaki S, Ashford DA, Perkins BA, Ostroff S, Hughes J, Fleming D, Koplan JP, Gerberding JL. Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1019-1028.

Kahn CM, Line S, editors. The Merck veterinary manual [online]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2003. Anthrax. Available at:  Accessed 22 Feb 2007.

Keim P, Price LB, Klevytska AM, Smith KL, Schupp JM, Okinaka R, Jackson P, Hugh-Jones ME. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis reveals genetic relationships within Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 2000;182:2928-2936.

Klee SR, Ozel M, Appel B, Boesch C, Ellerbrok H, Jacob D, Holland G, Leendertz FH, Pauli G, Grunow R, Nattermann H. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-like bacteria isolated from wild great apes from Cote d'Ivoire and Cameroon. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5333-5344.

Kortepeter M, Christopher G, Cieslak T, Culpepper R, Darling R, Pavlin J, Rowe J, McKee K, Eitzen E, editors. Medical management of biological casualties handbook [online]. 4th ed. United States Department of Defense; 2001. Anthrax. Available at:* Accessed 19 Nov 2002.

Langston C. Postexposure management and treatment of anthrax in dogs--executive councils of the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics and the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology. AAPS J. 2005;7:E272-3.Leendertz FH, Ellerbrok H, Boesch C, Couacy-Hymann E, Matz-Rensing K, Hakenbeck R, Bergmann C, Abaza P, Junglen S, Moebius Y, Vigilant L, Formenty P, Pauli G. Anthrax kills wild chimpanzees in a tropical rainforest. Nature. 2004;430:451-452.

Little SF.Anthrax vaccines: a development update. BioDrugs. 2005;19:233-245.

Luna VA, King DS, Peak KK, Reeves F, Heberlein-Larson L, Veguilla W, Heller L, Duncan KE, Cannons AC, Amuso P, Cattani J. Bacillus anthracis virulent plasmid pX02 genes found in large plasmids of two other Bacillus species. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2367-2377.

Morens DM.Epidemic anthrax in the eighteenth century, the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1160-1162.

Okinaka R, Pearson T, Keim P. Anthrax, but not Bacillus anthracis? PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e122.

Public Health Agency of Canada. Material Safety Data Sheet –Bacillus anthracis. Office of Laboratory Security; 2001 Jan. Available at: Accessed 19 Nov 2002.

Sagripanti JL, Carrera M, Insalaco J, Ziemski M, Rogers J, Zandomeni R. Virulent spores of Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species deposited on solid surfaces have similar sensitivity to chemical decontaminants. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;102:11-21.

Saile E, Koehler TM. Bacillus anthracis multiplication, persistence, and genetic exchange in the rhizosphere of grass plants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:3168-74.
Sirisanthana T, Brown AE. Anthrax of the gastrointestinal tract. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:649-651.

Spotts Whitney EA, Beatty ME, Taylor TH Jr, Weyant R, Sobel J, Arduino MJ, Ashford DA. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:623-627.

Turnbull PCB. Bacillus. In: Baron S, editor. Medical microbiology [online]. 4th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996. Available at: Accessed 22 Feb 2007.

Turnbull PCB. Anthrax. In: Palmer SR, Soulsby EJL, Simpson DIH. Zoonoses. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998. p. 3-16.

Turnbull PC, Tindall BW, Coetzee JD, Conradie CM, Bull RL, Lindeque PM, Huebschle OJ. Vaccine-induced protection against anthrax in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Vaccine. 2004;22:3340-3347.

United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services [USDA APHIS, VS]. Epizootiology and ecology of anthrax [online]. Available at: Accessed 5 Mar 2007.

Vietri NJ, Purcell BK, Lawler JV, Leffel EK, Rico P, Gamble CS, Twenhafel NA, Ivins BE, Heine HS, Sheeler R, Wright ME, Friedlander AM. Short-course postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis combined with vaccination protects against experimental inhalational anthrax. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7813-7816.

World Organization for Animal Health [OIE] . Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines [online]. Paris: OIE; 2004. Anthrax. Available at: Accessed 22 Feb 2007.

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