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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases of Animals, 2016

Chapter 5 References

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the U.S.

Avian Influenza: A Review of the Spring 2015 Outbreak and Preparing for Fall 2015, Iowa Department of Public Health webinar, James Roth, July 7, 2015. http://www.iowapha.org/AvianInfluenza/, Accessed March 31, 2016.

Statement of Dr. John Clifford, Deputy Administrator, Veterinary Services, APHIS, USDA before the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry, July 7, 2015. http://www.agriculture.senate.gov/hearings/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-the-impact-on-the-us-poultry-sector-and-protecting-us-poultry-flocks, Accessed March 31, 2016.

2015 Avian Influenza Outbreak…Lessons Learned Conference, Des Moines, Iowa, July 28-29, 2015.

https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalhealth/animal-disease-information/avian-influenza-disease/ct_avian_influenza_disease, Accessed March 31, 2016.

http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?contentid=avian_influenza.html, Accessed March 31, 2016.

Spickler, Anna Rovid, Avian Influenza, November 2015. Available at: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/highly_pathogenic_avian_influenza.pdf,  Accessed March 2016.

Canine Influenza in the U.S.

Meyer, M. (2006). UF Veterinary researchers discover a new disease in dogs. Explore, 11(2). Available at: http://www.research.ufl.edu/publications/explore/v11n2/story3.html 

Crawford C, Dubovi E, Don. Influenza virus infection in racing Greyhounds. Proceedings, 22nd annual International Canine Sports Medicine Symposium, Jan 7-8, 2006, Orlando, FL pp 40-42. http://research.agcouncil.com/?doc=10481&q=influenza

Feng KH, Gonzalez G, Deng L, Yu H, Tse VL, Huang L, Huang K, Wasik BR, Zhou B, Wentworth DE, Holmes EC, Chen X, Varki A, Murcia PR, Parrish CR. 2015. Equine and canine influenza H3N8 viruses show minimal biological differences despite phylogenetic divergence. J Virol 89:6860–6873.

Song D, Kang B, Lee C, Jung K, Ha G, Kang D, Park S, Park B, Oh J. Transmission of avian influenza virus (H3N2) to dogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:741-6.

Schwartz, J. (2015, April 12). Midwest Canine Influenza outbreak caused by new strain of virus. Available at: http://mediarelations.cornell.edu/2015/04/12/midwest-canine-influenza-outbreak-caused-by-new-strain-of-virus/

Alfred, S. Canine Influenza Virus Fact Sheet (2015). Chicago Animal Care and Control. http://www.cityofchicago.org/content/dam/city/depts/cacc/PDFiles/CIV_Information_and_FAQs_REVISED.pdf

Cornell University. Canine Influenza H3N2 Updates. Available at: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/news/civchicago.cfm 

Cima, G. (2015, July 29).  Canine flu hits Atlanta, vaccines under development. Available at: https://www.avma.org/News/JAVMANews/Pages/150815g.aspx 

Cima, G. (2015, December 18).  H3N2 canine flu may require longer isolation. Available at: https://www.avma.org/News/JAVMANews/Pages/160115d.aspx

Karasz, H. N. (2016, January 12). Dog owners be on the lookout– canine influenza a possibility in King County. Available at: http://publichealthinsider.com/2016/01/12/dog-owners-beware-canine-influenza-may-be-on-the-rise-in-king-county/ 

Merck Animal Health (2015). All States with Canine influenza. Available at: http://www.doginfluenza.com/States/states_with_civ.asp 

Merck Animal Health (2015). Frequently Asked Questions about Canine Influenza H3N2. Available at: http://www.doginfluenza.com/pdfs/FAQ H3N2 7-24-2015 19.pdf 

Solomon, D. (2015, December 22). What You Should Know About H3N2, The Dog Flu Strain That Hit Texas - Texas Monthly. Available at: http://www.texasmonthly.com/the-daily-post/what-you-should-know-about-h3n2-the-dog-flu-strain-that-hit-texas/  

AVMA. Canine Influenza FAQ: Questions, Answers, and Interim Guidelines. Available at: https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/FAQs/Pages/Control-of-Canine-Influenza-in-Dogs.aspx

AVMA. Canine Influenza. Available at:  https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reference/Pages/Canine-Influenza-Backgrounder.aspx

USDA-APHIS, 3.2 Conditional Licenses, available at: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/vet_biologics/publications/pel_3_2.pdf,  Accessed March 2016.

Spickler, Anna Rovid, Canine Influenza, November 2015. Available at: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/canine_influenza.pdf,  Accessed March 2016

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in the U.S.

Stevenson GW, Hoang H, Schwartz KJ, Burrough ER, Sun D, Madson D, et al. Emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States: Clinical signs, lesions, and viral genomic sequences. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013;25:649–54.

Huang Y.W., Dickerman A.W., Pineyro P., Li L., Fang L., Kiehne R., Opriessnig T., Meng X.J. 2013. Origin, Evolution, and Genotyping of Emergent Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains in the United States. mBio 4(5):00737-13.

Swine Enteric Coronavirus Introduction to the United States: Root Cause Investigation, USDA-APHIS-VS, September 24, 2015 Available at: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_dis_spec/swine/downloads/secd_final_report.pdf  Accessed March 2016

American Association of Swine Veterinarians (AASV). Quick Facts: PED. Available at: https://www.aasv.org/pedv/AASVPEDQF.pdf

Iowa State University- College of Veterinary Medicine. Swine Disease Manual: PED. Available at: https://vetmed.iastate.edu/vdpam/FSVD/swine/index-diseases/porcine-epidemic-diarrhea

Iowa State University- College of Veterinary Medicine. Swine Disease Manual: TGE. Available at: https://vetmed.iastate.edu/vdpam/FSVD/swine/index-diseases/tge

Alonso et al. 2014. Evidence of infectivity of airborne porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and detection of airborne viral RNA at long distances from infected herds. Veterinary Research 45:73.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. Technical Note: PED. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_dis_spec/swine/downloads/ped_tech_note.pdf

Li W., Li H., Liu Y., Pan Y., Deng F., Song Y., et al. 2012. New variants of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, China, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis Volume 18, Number 8, Aug 2012.

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service: Federal order. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/2014/06/pdf/secd_federal_order.pdf

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service: Revised Federal Order and Reporting Information Available at: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_dis_spec/swine/downloads/secd_federal_order.pdf
Jung K., Saif L. 2015. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylaxis. The Veterinary Journal. Doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.02.017

USDA Licenses First Vaccine for Procine Epidemic Diarrhea, June 16, 2014. Available at: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/2014/06/pdf/sa_pedv_vaccine.pdf

Zoetis Granted Conditional License for Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Vaccine, September 2, 2014. Available at: http://news.zoetis.com/press-release/manufacturing/zoetis-granted-conditional-license-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-vaccine Accessed March 2016.

Julio Alvarez, Javier Sarradell, Robert Morrison, and Andres Perez, Yung-Fu Chang, Academic Editor, 2015, Impact of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea on Performance of Growing Pigs, PLoS One. 2015; 10(3): e0120532., Published online 2015 Mar 13.  doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120532 Accessed March 2016

New World Screwworm in the U.S.

Percell M. Taylor, DVM (USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Miami Animal EditImport Center Assistant Director), James W. Mertins, PhD (USDA APHIS National Veterinary Services Laboratories Entomologist), Kendra Stauffer, DVM, DACVPM (USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Area Emergency Coordinator), and Elizabeth Enciso, DVM, MPH (USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Miami Animal Import Center Director). 2012. Case Report: Equine, Screwworm Myiasis, Intercepted. VMO Observer, February 16, 2012.  

Spickler, Anna Rovid, Screwworm Myiasis, Full Review December 2012, Minor Updates January 2016, http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/screwworm_myiasis.pdf.

African Swine Fever in Eastern Europe

Sanchez-Vizcaino, JM, Mur, L, Martinez-Lopez, B., African swine fever (ASF): Five years around Europe, Vet Micro. 2013;165:45-50.

Sanchez-Vizcaino, JM, Mur, L, Gomez-Villamandos, JC, Carrasco, L, An Update on the Epidemiology and Pathology of African Swine Fever. J. Comp. Path. 2015; 152:9-21.

Spickler, Anna Rovid, African Swine Fever, October 2015, http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/african_swine_fever.pdf Accessed March 2016

World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Disease Timelines, African Swine Fever, 2007-2015. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Diseaseinformation/Diseasetimelines Accessed March 2016

Blome S, Gabriel C, Beer M. Pathogenesis of African swine fever in domestic pigs and European wild boar. Virus Res. 2013;173(1):122-30.

Costard S, Wieland B, de Glanville W, Jori F, Rowlands R, Vosloo W, Roger F, Pfeiffer DU, Dixon LK. African swine fever: how can global spread be prevented? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364(1530):2683-96.

Costard S, Jones BA, Martínez-López B, Mur L, de la Torre A, Martínez M, Sánchez-Vizcaíno F, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, Pfeiffer DU, Wieland B. Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e61104.

Gogin A, Gerasimov V, Malogolovkin A, Kolbasov D. African swine fever in the North Caucasus region and the Russian Federation in years 2007-2012. Virus Res. 2013;173(1):198-203.

Mur L, Martínez-López B, Martínez-Avilés M, Costard S, Wieland B, Pfeiffer DU, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM. International Society for Infectious Diseases. Subject: PRO/AH> African swine fever - Georgia: OIE. Archive Number: 20070607.1845. Available at: http://www.promedmail.org. Accessed March 2016

Khomenko, S, Beltran-Alcrudo, D, Rozstalnyy, A, Gogin,A, Kolbasov,D, Pinto,J, Lubroth,J, Marin,V.. African swine fever in the Russian Federation: risk factors for Europe and beyond. Empres Watch, May 2013;28.

UK Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA). African Swine Fever. Available at: http://www.defra.gov.uk/animal-diseases/a-z/african-swine-fever/. Accessed March 2016.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. Disease Response Strategy: African Swine Fever. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergency_management/downloads/asf_strategies.pdf   Accessed March 2016.

World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals 2013: African Swine Fever. Available at: http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.08.01_ASF.pdf. Accessed March 2016.

Monkeypox in the U.S.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Monkeypox http://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/  Many resources on this site.  Accessed March 2016

Spickler, Anna Rovid. Monkeypox, February 2013, Minor updates: January 2016. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/monkeypox.pdf   Accessed March 2016

ProMED-mail. Monkeypox, human, prairie dogs – USA (WI, IL, IN). ProMED-mail June-July 2003; http://www.promedmail.org, search monkeypox. Accessed March 2016.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update: Multistate Outbreak of Monkeypox --- Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin 2003, MMWR Weekly, July 11, 2003;52(27): 642-646; http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5227a5.htm Accessed March 2016

Di Giulio DB, Eckburg PB. Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4(1):15-25.

Kile JC, Fleischauer AT, Beard B, Kuehnert MJ, Kanwal RS, Pontones P, Messersmith HJ, Teclaw R, Karem KL, Braden ZH, Damon I, Khan AS, Fischer M. Transmission of monkeypox among persons exposed to infected prairie dogs in Indiana in 2003. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(11):1022-5.

Langohr IM, Stevenson GW, Thacker HL, Regnery RL. Extensive lesions of monkeypox in a prairie dog (Cynomys sp).Vet Pathol. 2004;41(6):702-7.

Ligon BL. Monkeypox: a review of the history and emergence in the Western hemisphere. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2004;15(4):280-7.

Bernard SM, Anderson SA. Qualitative assessment of risk for monkeypox associated with domestic trade in certain animal species, United States.Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(12):1827-33.

Chen N, Li G, Liszewski MK, Atkinson JP, Jahrling PB, Feng Z, Schriewer J, Buck C, Wang C, Lefkowitz EJ, Esposito JJ, Harms T, Damon IK, Roper RL, Upton C, Buller RM. Virulence differences between monkeypox virus isolates from West Africa and the Congo basin. Virology. 2005;340(1):46-63.

Dubois ME, Slifka MK. Retrospective analysis of monkeypox infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):592-9.

Guarner J, Johnson BJ, Paddock CD, Shieh W-J, Goldsmith CS, Reynolds MG, et al. Monkeypox transmission and pathogenesis in prairie dogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Mar;10 (3):426-31.

Hutson CL, Lee KN, Abel J, Carroll DS, Montgomery JM, Olson VA, Li Y, Davidson W, Hughes C, Dillon M, Spurlock P, Kazmierczak JJ, Austin C, Miser L, Sorhage FE, Howell J, Davis JP, Reynolds MG, Braden Z, Karem KL, Damon IK, Regnery RL. Monkeypox zoonotic associations: insights from laboratory evaluation of animals associated with the multi-state US outbreak.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76(4):757-68.

Kile JC, Fleischauer AT, Beard B, Kuehnert MJ, Kanwal RS, Pontones P, Messersmith HJ, Teclaw R, Karem KL, Braden ZH, Damon I, Khan AS, Fischer M. Transmission of monkeypox among persons exposed to infected prairie dogs in Indiana in 2003. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(11):1022-5.

Langohr IM, Stevenson GW, Thacker HL, Regnery RL. Extensive lesions of monkeypox in a prairie dog (Cynomys sp).Vet Pathol. 2004;41(6):702-7.

Ligon BL. Monkeypox: a review of the history and emergence in the Western hemisphere. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2004;15(4):280-7.

Nalca A, Rimoin AW, Bavari S, Whitehouse CA. Reemergence of monkeypox: prevalence, diagnostics, and countermeasures. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(12):1765-71.

Reed K, Melski J, Stratman E. Monkeypox brings international attention. Available at: http://www.marshfieldclinic.org/proxy/MC-systemReview_03_monkeypoxAttention.1.pdf. Accessed March 2016.

Reynolds MG, Cono J, Curns A, Holman RC, Likos A, Regnery R, Treadwell T, Damon I. Human monkeypox. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4(10):604-5

Reynolds MG, Davidson WB, Curns AT, Conover CS, Huhn G, Davis JP, Wegner M, Croft DR, Newman A, Obiesie NN, Hansen GR, Hays PL, Pontones P, Beard B, Teclaw R, Howell JF, Braden Z, Holman RC, Karem KL, Damon IK. Spectrum of infection and risk factors for human monkeypox, United States, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1332-9.

Morrison, B, Williams L, Monkey Pox, Giant Rats, and Prairie Dogs, United States Animal Health Association Newsletter, 30; No.2, July 2003.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). African Rodent Importation Ban,  http://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/african-ban.html, Accessed March 2016.

Smith, KF, Behrens,M, Schloegel, LM, Marano, N, Burgiel, S, Daszak, P, Reducing the Risks of the Wildlife Trade, 1 May 2009, Science; 324, 594-595.

Lankau,EW, Sinclair, JR, Schroeder, BA, Galland, GG, Marano, N, Public Health Implications of Changing Rodent Importation Patterns – United States, 1999-2013, Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 5 Aug 2015.

Bush, ER, Baker, SE, MacDonald, DW, Global Trade in Exotic Pets 2006-2012, 2014, Conservation Biology; 28,3:663-676.

The Compendium of Veterinary Standard Precautions for Zoonotic Disease Prevention in Veterinary Personnel, http://nasphv.org/Documents/VeterinaryStandardPrecautions.pdf. Accessed March 2016.

Foot and Mouth Disease in the UK and Uruguay

Spickler, Anna Rovid. Foot and Mouth Disease, Last updated: April 2014, Revised March 2015. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/foot_and_mouth_disease.pdf, Accessed 2016.

FAO Corporate Document Repository, Animal Diseases: Implications for International Meat Trade, http://www.fao.org/docrep/MEETING/004/y6975e.htm, Accessed March 2016.

Berretta, Elbio J., Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles, Uruguay, http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/counprof/PDF%20files/Uruguay_English.pdf, Accessed March 2016.

USDA-APHIS- Animal Health- Veterinary Services – Center for Animal Health – Center for Emerging Issues; Impact Worksheets for FMD in Uruguay,  in Argentina, and in UK, 2001, https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalhealth/sa_emerging_issues/sa_by_year/ct_year_2001, Accessed March 2016.

BBC News World Edition, Foot-and-mouth: Crisis timeline, 14 Jan 2002 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1760785.stm, Accessed March 2016.

National Audit Office, The 2001 Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease, Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, London, HC 939, Session 2001-2002, June 2002. https://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2002/06/0102939.pdf.

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), Origin of the UK Foot and Mouth Disease epidemic in 2001, June 2001. http://www.ecolab.com/innovation/microbial-risks/~/media/229E1F86251E474DA055612D15AF4B8E.asx, Accessed March 2016.

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), U.K. Foot and mouth disease. Available at: http://footandmouth.fera.defra.gov.uk/,  Accessed March 2016.

Grubman MJ, Baxt B. Foot-and-mouth disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:465-93. International Society for Infectious Diseases.

Thompson D, Muriel P, Russell D, Osborne P, Bromley A, Rowland M, Creigh-Tyte S, Brown C. Economic costs of the foot and mouth disease outbreak in the UK in 2001. Rev Sci Tech. 2002; 21(3):675.

Mort M, Convery I, Baxter J, Bailey C. Psychosocial effects of the 2001 UK foot and mouth disease epidemic in a rural population: qualitative diary based study. BMJ. 2005 Nov 26;331(7527):1234.

Correa Melo E, Saraiva V, Astudillo V. Review of the status of foot and mouth disease in countries of South America and approaches to control and eradication. Rev Sci Tech. 2002; 21(3):429-436.

Sutmoller P, Casas Olascoaga R. The successful control and eradication of foot and mouth disease epidemics in South America in 2001. Evidence for the Temporary Committee on Foot-and-Mouth Disease of the European Parliament; September 2, 2002. Presented by Paul Sutmoller. Available at: http://www.humanitarian.net/biodefense/papers/sutmoeller_en.pdf, Accessed March 2016.

Irvine, James, How Vaccination was used for Foot and Mouth Disease in Uruguay in April 2001 and subsequently, http://www.land-care.org.uk/fmd/curr_topic/uruguay_vaccination/uruguay_vaccination.htm, Accessed March 2016.

Knight-Jones, T.J.D, Rushton, J., The economic impacts of foot and mouth disease – What are they, how big are they and where do they occur?, 2013, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 112, pp 161-173.

Saraiva, V, Darsie, G, The Use of Vaccines in South America Foot-and-Mouth Disease Eradication Programmes, in Control of Infectious Animal Diseases by Vaccinations, Dev. Biol, Schudel A, Lombard M(eds)Basel, Karger, 2004, Vol 119, pp 33-40.

Thomson G. Foot and mouth disease: Facing the new dilemmas. Rev Sci Tech. 2002;21(3): 425-8.

USDA APHIS, Veterinary Services, National Preparedness and Incident Coordination Center, FAD Prep, Foot-And-Mouth Disease Response Plan, The Red Book, Draft September 2014. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergency_management/downloads/fmd_responseplan.pdf, Accessed March 2016.

Classical Swine Fever in the UK

Spickler, Anna Rovid. Classical Swine Fever, Last updated: October 2015. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/classical_swine_fever.pdf, Accessed March 2016.

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), United Kingdom. Disease factsheet: Classical swine fever. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/classical-swine-fever, Accessed March 2016.

PigHealth.com. Classical swine fever. CSF Outbreaks in the United Kingdom in 2000. Available at: http://www.pighealth.com/csf.htm, Accessed March 2016.

Paton, David, The Reappearance of Classical Swine Fever in England in 2000, Trends in Emerging Viral Infections of Swine, Ed Antonio Morilla, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Jeff Zimmerman, Hoboken: Wiley, 2008. Chapter 5.3, 153-158.

ThePigSite.com. Available at: http://www.thepigsite.com, Accessed 2003.

World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). OIE disease information, http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Diseaseinformation/Diseasetimelines, Accessed March 2016.

World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). http://www.oie.int/en/animal-health-in-the-world/official-disease-status/classical-swine-fever/

World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Terrestrial Animal Health Code, http://web.oie.int/eng/normes/mcode/en_chapitre_1.15.2.htm, Accessed March 2016.

Olsevskis, Edvins, 2014, Classical swine fever and African swine fever in Latvia, SCoFCAH meeting, Brussels, http://ec.europa.eu/food/animals/docs/reg-com_ahw_20140703_pres_csf_asf_latvia.pdf, Accessed March 2016.

Rossi, S, Stauback, C. et al, Controlling of CSFV in European wild boar using oral vaccination: a review. Fron:Microbiol. 23 Oct 2015, http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01141/full, Accessed March 2016.

United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Servic, Veterinary Services, FAD PReP, Classical Swine Fever Response Plan, The Red Book, 2013, https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergency_management/downloads/csf_responseplan.pdf, Accessed March 2016.

West Nile Virus in the U.S.

Spickler, Anna Rovid. West Nile Virus Infection, Last updated: August 2013. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/west_nile_fever.pdf, Accessed March 2016.

Komar N, Panella NA, Burns JE, Dusza SW, Mascarenhas TM, Talbot TO. Serologic Evidence for West Nile Virus Infection in Birds in the New York City Vicinity During an Outbreak in 1999. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2001, Aug. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0704.017403, Accessed Jan 2016.

Steinhauer J. African virus may be culprit in mosquito-borne illnesses in New York region. New York Times; Sunday, 26 September 1999Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/regional/092599ny-encephalitis.html, Accessed March 2016.

International Society for Infectious Diseases. NVSL first to… ProMED Mail, Tue, 28 Sep 1999 11:30:16 -0500, from Beverly J. Schmitt of the USDA APHIS National Veterinary Services Laboratories. Archive Number 19990928.1739. Available at: http://www.promedmail.org, Accessed March 2016.

Outbreak of West Nile-Like Viral Encephalitis -- New York, 1999, Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, October 01, 1999, 48(38);845-9, Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4838a1.htm, Accessed March 2016.

The Lancet, Exotic Diseases Close to Home, The Lancet, Oct. 9, 1999, Vol 354, No. 9186: 1221.

Johnston, B Lynn, Conly, John M, West Nile virus – Where did it come from and where might it go? Can J Infect Dis, 2000, 11(4), July/Aug: 175-178

Rappole JH, Derrickson SR, Hubalek Z. Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000 Jul-Aug; 6(4):319-28.

Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Parasites and Diseases: West Nile Virus Monitoring in Alaska. Available at: http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=disease.wnv  

West Nile Virus. (2013). Hawaii Invasive Species Council. Available at: http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/hisc/info/species/west-nile-virus/ 

Castillo-Olivares J, Wood J. West Nile virus infection of horses. Vet Res. 2004;35:467-83.

Giallonardo, F. D., Geoghegan, J. L., Docherty, D. E., Mclean, R. G., Zody, M. C., Qu, J., . . . Holmes, E. C. (2015). Fluid Spatial Dynamics of West Nile Virus in the United States: Rapid Spread in a Permissive Host Environment. JVirol, 90(2), 862-872. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26512086 

CDC. Species of dead birds in which West Nile virus has been detected, United States, 1999-2012. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/resources/pdfs/birdspecies1999-2012.pdf

Morell, V. (2015, November 02). West Nile virus still wiping out birds across North America. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/11/west-nile-virus-still-wiping-out-birds-across-north-america  

Jacobson ER, Ginn PE, Troutman JM, Farina L, Stark L, Klenk K, Burkhalter KL, Komar N. West Nile virus infection in farmed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:96-106.

United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Animal Health, Equine Health, West Nile Virus, https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalhealth/animal-disease-information/horse-disease-information/sa_west_nile_virus/ct_wnv_distribution_maps, Accessed March 2016.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). West Nile virus, Statistics & Maps, http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/statsmaps/, Accessed March 2016.

Gubler DJ. The continuing spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:1039-46.

JAVMA News, Conditional license issued for West Nile vaccine for horses, 2001, Sept. 15. https://www.avma.org/News/JAVMANews/Pages/s091501e.aspx, Accessed March 2016.

American Association of Equine Practitioners, Core Vaccination Guidelines, http://www.aaep.org/info/core-vaccination-guidelines?osCsid=eij494v5ijmk9c50u0lcfdatt0, Accessed March 2016.

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