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EEDA Textbook References: West Nile Virus Infection

Anderson K. (Nebraska Cooperative Extension). West Nile virus guidelines for horse owners. Nebraska Cooperative Extension; 2002 Aug. Available at: http://www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/animaldisease/nf542.htm.* Accessed 5 Dec 2002.

Austgen LE, Bowen RA, Bunning ML, Davis BS, Mitchell CJ, Chang GJ. Experimental infection of cats and dogs with West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:82-6.

Beasley DW. Recent advances in the molecular biology of west nile virus. Curr Mol Med. 2005;5:835-50.

Bentler KT, Hall JS, Root JJ, Klenk K, Schmit B, Blackwell BF, Ramey PC, Clark L. Serologic evidence of West Nile virus exposure in North American mesopredators. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:173-9.

Blackburn NK, Reyers F, Berry WL, Shepherd AJ. Susceptibility of dogs to West Nile virus: a survey and pathogenicity trial. J Comp Pathol. 1989;100:59-66.

Blitvich BJ. Transmission dynamics and changing epidemiology of West Nile virus. Anim Health Res Rev. 2008;9:71-86.

Bunning ML, Bowen RA, Cropp CB, Sullivan KG, Davis BS, Komar N, Godsey MS, Baker D, Hettler DL, Holmes DA, Biggerstaff BJ, Mitchell CJ. Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus. Emerg Infec. Dis. 2002;8:380-6.

Callan RJ, Van Metre DC. Viral diseases of the ruminant nervous system. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2004;20:327-62, vii.

Cannon AB, Luff JA, Brault AC, MacLachlan NJ, Case JB, Green EN, Sykes JE. Acute encephalitis, polyarthritis, and myocarditis associated with West Nile virus infection in a dog. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:1219-23.

Carboni DA, Nevarez JG, Tully TN Jr, Evans DE. West Nile virus infection in a sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis). J Avian Med Surg. 2008;22:240-5.

Castillo-Olivares J, Wood J. West Nile virus infection of horses. Vet Res. 2004;35:467-83.

Chin J, editor. Control of communicable diseases manual. 17th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 2000. Arthropod-borne viral fevers; p. 48-50.

Clark L, Hall J, McLean R, Dunbar M, Klenk K, Bowen R, Smeraski CA. Susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to experimental infection with West Nile virus. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:14-22.

D'Agostino JJ, Isaza R. Clinical signs and results of specific diagnostic testing among captive birds housed at zoological institutions and infected with West Nile virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004;224:1640-3, 1606.

Dauphin G, Zientara S. West Nile virus: recent trends in diagnosis and vaccine development. Vaccine. 2007;25:5563-76.

Davis LE, DeBiasi R, Goade DE, Haaland KY, Harrington JA, Harnar JB, Pergam SA, King MK, DeMasters BK, Tyler KL. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease. Ann Neurol. 2006;60:286-300.

Dawson JR, Stone WB, Ebel GD, Young DS, Galinski DS, Pensabene JP, Franke MA, Eidson M, Kramer LD. Crow deaths caused by West Nile virus during winter. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1912-4.

Del Piero F, Stremme DW, Habecker PL, Cantile C.West Nile flavivirus polioencephalomyelitis in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Vet Pathol. 2006;43:58-61.

Ellis AE, Mead DG, Allison AB, Stallknecht DE, Howerth EW. Pathology and epidemiology of natural West Nile viral infection of raptors in Georgia. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:214-23.

Erdélyi K, Ursu K, Ferenczi E, Szeredi L, Rátz F, Skáre J, Bakonyi T. Clinical and pathologic features of lineage 2 West Nile virus infections in birds of prey in Hungary. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:181-8.

Gancz AY, Barker IK, Lindsay R, Dibernardo A, McKeever K, Hunter B. West Nile virus outbreak in North American owls, Ontario, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:2135-42.

Gibbs SE, Ellis AE, Mead DG, Allison AB, Moulton JK, Howerth EW, Stallknecht DE. West Nile virus detection in the organs of naturally infected blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata). J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:354-62.

Gibbs SE, Marlenee NL, Romines J, Kavanaugh D, Corn JL, Stallknecht DE. Antibodies to West Nile virus in feral swine from Florida, Georgia, and Texas, USA. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2006;6:261-5.

Gubler DJ. The continuing spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:1039-46.

Heinz-Taheny KM, Andrews JJ, Kinsel MJ, Pessier AP, Pinkerton ME, Lemberger KY, Novak RJ, Dizikes GJ, Edwards E, Komar N. West Nile virus infection in free-ranging squirrels in Illinois. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16:186-90.

Hinckley AF, O'Leary DR, Hayes EB. Transmission of West Nile virus through human breast milk seems to be rare. Pediatrics. 2007;119(3):e666-71.

Jacobson ER, Ginn PE, Troutman JM, Farina L, Stark L, Klenk K, Burkhalter KL, Komar N. West Nile virus infection in farmed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:96-106.

Kahn CM, Line S, editors. The Merck veterinary manual [online]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2006. West Nile encephalomyelitis. Available at: http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/102700.htm. Accessed 21 Jan 2009.

Kecskeméti S, Bajmócy E, Bacsadi A, Kiss I, Bakonyi T. Encephalitis due to West Nile virus in a sheep. Vet Rec. 2007;161:568-9.

Kile JC, Panella NA, Komar N, Chow CC, MacNeil A, Robbins B, Bunning ML. Serologic survey of cats and dogs during an epidemic of West Nile virus infection in humans. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;226:1349-53.

Klenk K, Komar N. Poor replication of West Nile virus (New York 1999 strain) in three reptilian and one amphibian species. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69:260-2.

Komar N, Panella NA, Boyce E. Exposure of domestic mammals to West Nile virus during an outbreak of human encephalitis, New York City, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:736-8.

Kramer LD, Li J, Shi PY. West Nile virus. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:171-81.

Kramer LD, Styer LM, Ebel GD. A global perspective on the epidemiology of West Nile virus. Annu Rev Entomol. 2008;53:61-81.

Kutzler MA, Bildfell RJ, Gardner-Graff KK, Baker RJ, Delay JP, Mattson DE. West Nile virus infection in two alpacas. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004;225:921-4, 880.

LaDeau SL, Kilpatrick AM, Marra PP. West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations. Nature. 2007;447:710-3.

Langevin SA, Bunning M, DavisB, Komar N. Experimental infection of chickens as candidate sentinels for West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:726-9.

Lanthier I, Hébert M, Tremblay D, Harel J, Dallaire AD, Girard C. Natural West Nile virus infection in a captive juvenile Arctic wolf (Canis lupus). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16:326-9.

Leake CJ. Mosquito-borne arboviruses. In: Palmer SR, Soulsby EJL, Simpson DIH, editors. Zoonoses. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998. p. 401-413.

Lopes H, Redig P, Glaser A, Armien A, Wünschmann A. Clinical findings, lesions, and viral antigen distribution in great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) and barred owls (Strix varia) with spontaneous West Nile virus infection. Avian Dis. 2007 Mar;51:140-5.

Ludwig GV, Calle PP, Mangiafico JA, Raphael BL, Danner DK, Hile JA, Clippinger TL, Smith JF, Cook RA, McNamara T. An outbreak of West Nile virus in a New York City captive wildlife population. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:67-75.

Malik-Peiris JS, Amerasinghe FP. West Nile fever. In: Beran GW, editor. Handbook of Zoonoses. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1994. p. 139-148.

Miller DL, Radi ZA, Baldwin C, Ingram D. Fatal West Nile virus infection in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:246-9.

Murgue B, Murri S, Zientara S, Durand B, Durand J-P, Zeller H. West Nile outbreak in horses in southern France, 2000: The return after 35 years. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:692-6.

Nemeth N, Gould D, Bowen R, Komar N. Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:1-13.

Nemeth NM, Hahn DC, Gould DH, Bowen RA. Experimental West Nile virus infection in Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio). Avian Dis. 2006;50:252-8.

Nevarez JG, Mitchell MA, Morgan T, Roy A, Johnson A. Association of West Nile virus with lymphohistiocytic proliferative cutaneous lesions in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) detected by RT-PCR. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008;39:562-6.

Ølberg RA, Barker IK, Crawshaw GJ, Bertelsen MF, Drebot MA, Andonova M. West Nile virus encephalitis in a Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus). Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:712-4.

Ostlund EN, Crom RL, Pedersen DD, Johnson DJ, Williams WO, Schmit BJ. Equine West Nile encephalitis, United States. Emerg Infec. Dis. 2001;7:665-9.

Paddock CD, Nicholson WL, Bhatnagar J, Goldsmith CS, Greer PW, Hayes EB, Risko JA, Henderson C, Blackmore CG, Lanciotti RS, Campbell GL, Zaki SR. Fatal hemorrhagic fever caused by West Nile virus in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:1527-35.

Palmer MV, Stoffregen WC, Rogers DG, Hamir AN, Richt JA, Pedersen DD, Waters WR. West Nile virus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16:219-22.

Pellegrini-Masini A, Livesey LC. Meningitis and encephalomyelitis in horses.Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2006;22:553-89, x.

Perl S, Fiette L, Lahav D, Sheichat N, Banet C, Orgad U, Stram Y, Malkinson M. West Nile encephalitis in horses in Israel. Isr J Vet Med. 2002;57: 65–69.

Petersen LR, Marfin AA. West Nile virus: a primer for the clinician. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:173-9.

Platt KB, Tucker BJ, Halbur PG, Blitvich BJ, Fabiosa FG, Mullin K, Parikh GR, Kitikoon P, Bartholomay LC, Rowley WA. Fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) develop West Nile virus viremias sufficient for infecting select mosquito species. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:225-33.

Pollock CG. West Nile virus in the Americas. J Avian Med Surg. 2008;22:151-7.

Phipps LP, Duff JP, Holmes JP, Gough RE, McCracken F, McElhinney LM, Johnson N, Hughes L, Chantrey J, Pennycott T, Murray KO, Brown IH, Fooks AR. Surveillance for West Nile virus in British birds (2001 to 2006). Vet Rec. 2008;162:413-5.

Public Health Agency of Canada. Material Safety Data Sheet – West Nile virus. Office of Laboratory Security; 2003 Jul. Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/msds-ftss/msds175e-eng.php. Accessed 5 Feb 2009.

Read RW, Rodriguez DB, Summers BA West Nile virus encephalitis in a dog. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:219-22.

Root JJ, Oesterle PT, Nemeth NM, Klenk K, Gould DH, McLean RG, Clark L, Hall JS. Experimental infection of fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) with West Nile virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:697-701.

Savini G, Monaco F, Calistri P, Lelli R. Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus isolated in Italy in 2008. Euro Surveill. 2008;13(48). pii: 19048.

Steinman A, Banet-Noach C, Simanov L, Grinfeld N, Aizenberg Z, Levi O, Lahav D, Malkinson M, Perk S, Shpigel NY. Experimental infection of common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) with West Nile virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2006;6:361-8.

Swayne DE, Beck JR, Smith CS, Shieh W-J, Zaki SR. Fatal encephalitis and myocarditis in young domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) caused by West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:751-3.

Teehee ML, Bunning ML, Stevens S, Bowen RA.Experimental infection of pigs with West Nile virus. Arch Virol. 2005;150:1249-56.

Tiawsirisup S, Platt KB, Tucker BJ, Rowley WA. Eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) develop West Nile virus viremias sufficient for infecting select mosquito species. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5:342-50.

Tyler JW, Turnquist SE, David AT, Kleiboeker SB, Middleton JR. West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in a sheep. J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17:242-4.

Trevejo RT, Eidson M. Zoonosis update: West Nile virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;232:1302-9.

Trock SC, Meade BJ, Glaser AL, Ostlund EN, Lanciotti RS, Cropp BC, Kulasekera V, Kramer LD, Komar N. West Nile virus outbreak among horses in New York State, 1999 and 2000. Emerg Infec. Dis. 2001;7:745-7

United States Department of Agriculture. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services [USDA APHIS, VS]. West Nile virus [online]. USDA APHIS; 2002 Dec. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/fsheet_faq_notice/fs_ahwnv.html. Accessed 5 Dec 2002.

Van der Meulen KM, Pensaert MB, Nauwynck HJ.West Nile virus in the vertebrate world. Arch Virol. 2005;150:637-57.

Walker BL, Naugle DE, Doherty KE, Cornish TE. West Nile virus and greater sage-grouse: estimating infection rate in a wild bird population. Avian Dis. 2007;51:691-6.

World Organization for Animal Health [OIE]. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals [online]. Paris; OIE; 2008. West Nile fever. Available at: http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/mmanual/2008/pdf/2.01.20_WEST_NILE.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 2009.

Wünschmann A, Shivers J, Carroll L, Bender J. Pathological and immunohistochemical findings in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) naturally infected with West Nile virus. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16:329-33.

Wünschmann A, Ziegler A.West Nile virus-associated mortality events in domestic Chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) and domestic Impeyan pheasants (Lophophorus impeyanus). Avian Dis. 2006;50:456-9.

Yaeger M, Yoon KJ, Schwartz K, Berkland L. West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in a Suri alpaca and Suffolk ewe. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16:64-6.

Zhang Z, Wilson F, Read R, Pace L, Zhang S. Detection and characterization of naturally acquired West Nile virus infection in a female wild turkey. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:204-8.

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