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EEDA Textbook References: Equine Encephalomyelitis: Eastern, Western, & Venezuelan

Acha PN, Szyfres B [Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)]. Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals. Volume 2. Chlamydioses, rickettsioses, and viroses. 3rd ed. Washington DC: PAHO; 2003. Scientific and Technical Publication No. 580. Eastern equine encephalitis; p. 110-115.

Acha PN, Szyfres B [Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)]. Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals. Volume 2. Chlamydioses, rickettsioses, and viroses. 3rd ed. Washington DC: PAHO; 2003. Scientific and Technical Publication No. 580. Venezuelan equine encephalitis; p. 333-345.

Acha PN, Szyfres B [Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)]. Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals. Volume 2. Chlamydioses, rickettsioses, and viroses. 3rd ed. Washington DC: PAHO; 2003. Scientific and Technical Publication No. 580. Western equine encephalitis; p. 365-372.

Ayers JR, Lester TL, Angulo AB. An epizootic attributable to western equine encephalitis virus infection in emus in Texas. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1994;205:600-1.

Bauer RW, Gill MS, Poston RP, Kim DY. Naturally occurring eastern equine encephalitis in a Hampshire wether. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2005;17:281-5.

Calisher CH. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1994;7:89-116.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Information on arboviral encephalitides [online]. CDC; 2005 Nov. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/
dvbid/arbor/arbdet.htm. Accessed 4 Apr. 2008.

Chin J, editor. Control of communicable diseases. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association; 2000. Arthropod–borne viral diseases; p. 28-47.

Cooper GL, Medina HA.  Egg production drops in breeder turkeys associated with western equine encephalitis virus infection. Avian Dis. 1999;43:136-41.

Cupp EW, Zhang D, Yue X, Cupp MS, Guyer C, Sprenger TR, Unnasch TR. Identification of reptilian and amphibian blood meals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus focus in central Alabama. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:272-6.

Del Piero F, Wilkins PA, Dubovi EJ, Biolatti B, Cantile C. Clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and virologic findings of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in two horses. Vet Pathol. 2001;38:451-6.

Fulhorst CF, Hardy JL, Eldridge BF, Presser SB, Reeves WC. Natural vertical transmission of western equine encephalomyelitis virus in mosquitoes. Science. 1994;263:676-8.

Garner G, Saville P, Fediaevsky A. Manual for the Recognition of Exotic Diseases of Livestock: A Reference Guide for Animal Health Staff [online]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; 2004. Equine viral encephalomyelitis.  Available at: http://www.spc.int/rahs/. Accessed 4 Apr 2008.

Gottdenker NL, Howerth EW, Mead DG. Natural infection of a great egret (Casmerodius albus) with eastern equine encephalitis virus. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:702-6.

Guy JS, Barnes HJ, Ficken MD, Smith LG, Emory WH, Wages DP. Decreased egg production in turkeys experimentally infected with eastern equine encephalitis virus or Highlands J virus. Avian Dis. 1994;38:563-71.

Guy JS, Barnes HJ, Smith LG Experimental infection of young broiler chickens with eastern equine encephalitis virus and Highlands J virus. Avian Dis. 1994;38:572-82.

International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Universal Virus Database [ICTVdB] Management. 00.073.  Togaviridae. In: Büchen-Osmond C, editor. ICTVdB - The universal virus database, version 4 [online]. New York: Columbia University; 2006. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTVdB. Accessed 11 Apr 2008.

Kahn CM, Line S, editors. The Merck veterinary manual [online]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2003. Equine encephalomyelitis. Available at: http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/100900.htm. Accessed 4 Apr 2008.

Leake CJ. Mosquito–borne arboviruses. In: Palmer SR, Soulsby EJL, Simpson DIH, editors. Zoonoses: Biology, clinical practice and public health control. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998. p.401–413.

Nandalur M, Urban AW. Eastern equine encephalitis [online]. eMedicine; 2007 Oct. Available at: http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3155.htm. Accessed 7 Apr 2008.

Nandalur M, Urban AW. Western equine encephalitis [online]. eMedicine; 2007 Oct. Available at: http://www.emedicine.com/MED/topic3156.htm. Accessed 7 Apr 2008.

Nolen-Walston R, Bedenice D, Rodriguez C, Rushton S, Bright A, Fecteau ME, Short D, Majdalany R, Tewari D, Pedersen D, Kiupel M, Maes R, Del Piero F. Eastern equine encephalitis in 9 South American camelids. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21:846-52.

Public Health Agency of Canada, Office of Laboratory Security. Material Safety Data Sheet: Western equine encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus [online]. Office of Laboratory Security; 2001 Jan. Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/msds-ftss/msds52e.html. Accessed 13 Feb 2008.

Public Health Agency of Canada, Office of Laboratory Security. Material Safety Data Sheet: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus [online]. Office of Laboratory Security; 2001 Jan. Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/msds-ftss/msds162e.html. Accessed 13 Feb 2008.

Pursell AR, Mitchell FE, Siebold HR. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced eastern encephalomyelitis in calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1976;169:1101-3.

Pursell AR, Peckham JC, Cole JR Jr, Stewart WC, Mitchell FE. Naturally occurring and artificially induced eastern encephalomyelitis in pigs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1972;161:1143-7.

Randolph KD, Vanhooser SL, Hoffman M.  Western equine encephalitis virus in emus in Oklahoma. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1994 Oct;6:492-3.

Reisen WK, Chiles RE, Martinez VM, Fang Y, Green EN. Experimental infection of California birds with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. J Med Entomol. 2003;40:968-82.

Schmaljohn AL, McClain D. Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and flaviviruses (Flaviviridae). In: Baron S, editor. Medical microbiology [online]. 4th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996. Available at: http://www.gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch054.htm. Accessed 25 Feb 2008.

Schmitt SM, Cooley TM, Fitzgerald SD, Bolin SR, Lim A, Schaefer SM, Kiupel M, Maes RK, Hogle SA, O'Brien DJ.  An outbreak of Eastern equine encephalitis virus in free-ranging white-tailed deer in Michigan. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:635-44.

Tate CM, Howerth EW, Stallknecht DE, Allison AB, Fischer JR, Mead DG Eastern equine encephalitis in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:241-5.

Tengelsen LA, Bowen RA, Royals MA, Campbell GL, Komar N, Craven RB. Response to and efficacy of vaccination against eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in emus. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;218:1469-73.

Tully TN Jr, Shane SM, Poston RP, England JJ, Vice CC, Cho DY, Panigrahy B. Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Avian Dis. 1992 Jul-Sep;36(3):808-12.

Tuttle AD, Andreadis TG, Frasca S Jr, Dunn JL. Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of African penguins maintained at an aquarium. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;226:2059-62, 2003.

Kortepeter M, Christopher G, Cieslak T, Culpepper R, Darling R, Pavlin J, Rowe J, McKee K, Eitzen E, editors. Medical management of biological casualties handbook [online]. 4th ed. United States Department of Defense; 2001. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Available at: http://www.vnh.org/BIOCASU/14.html.* Accessed 10 Dec 2002.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [USDA APHIS]. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis [online]. APHIS; 2002 Sept. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov:80/oa/pubs/fsvee.html.* Accessed 16 Dec 2000.

Walton TE. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. In: Foreign animal diseases. Richmond, VA: United States Animal Health Association, 1998. Available at: http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/gray_book02/fad/vee.php. Accessed 4 Aor 2008.

Weaver SC, Hagenbaugh A, Bellew LA, Gousset L, Mallampalli V, Holland JJ, Scott TW. Evolution of alphaviruses in the eastern equine encephalomyelitis complex. J Virol. 1994;68:158-69.

Weaver SC, Ferro C, Barrera R, Boshell J, Navarro JC. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annu Rev Entomol. 2004;49:141-74.

Williams SM, Fulton RM, Patterson JS, Reed WM. Diagnosis of eastern equine encephalitis by immunohistochemistry in two flocks of Michigan ring-neck pheasants. Avian Dis. 2000;44:1012-6.

World Organization for Animal Health [OIE] . Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals [online]. Paris: OIE; 2004. Equine encephalomyelitis (eastern and western). Available at: http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/mmanual/A_00081.htm. Accessed 4 Apr. 2008.

World Organization for Animal Health [OIE] . Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals [online]. Paris: OIE; 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. Available at: http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/mmanual/A_00090.htm. Accessed 4 Apr 2008.

*Link defunct as of 2007